The Epic of Kings
Commentary: Several comments have been posted about
The Epic of Kings.
text-only version is available for download.
The Epic of Kings
Written 1010 A.C.E.
Translated by Helen Zimmern
Now ere the son of Zal was born, Rudabeh was sore afflicted, and neither
by day nor night could she find rest. Then Zal in his trouble bethought
him of the Simurgh, his nurse, and how she had given unto him a feather
that he might use it in the hour of his need. And he cast the feather into
the fire as she had commanded, and straightway a sound of rushing wings
filled the air, and the sky was darkened and the bird of God stood before
Zal. And she said unto him-
"O my son, wherefore art thou troubled, and why are the eyes of
this lion wet with tears?"
Then he told her of his sorrow, and she bade him be of good cheer,
"For verily thy nurse who shielded thee, and reared thee when thy father
cast thee out, is come yet again to succour thee."
And she told him how he should act, and when she had done speaking
she turned her once more towards her nest. But Zal did as she had commanded,
and there was born to him a son comely of limb. And when Rudabeh beheld
the babe, she smiled and said-
"Verily he shall be called Rustem (which, being interpreted, meaneth
delivered), for I am delivered of my pains."
And all the land was glad that a son was come unto Zal the hero,
and the sounds of feasting and joy were heard throughout its
Then fleet messengers brought the sweet tidings unto Saum. And
they bare with them an image of Rustem sewn of silk, whereon were traced
the features of this lion's whelp, and a club was put into its hands, and
it was mounted upon a dromedary. Now when Saum beheld the image his heart
leaped up within him. He poured mountains of gold before the messengers,
and gave thanks unto Ormuzd that he had suffered his eyes to look upon
And when eight summers had rolled above their heads, Saum learned
that Rustem was mighty of stature and fair of mien, and his heart yearned
towards him. He therefore made ready a mighty host and passed unto Zaboulistan,
that he might look upon his son. And Rustem rode forth to meet his sire,
mounted upon an elephant of war, and when he beheld Saum he fell upon his
face and craved his blessing. And Saum blessed Rustem, the son of
Then Rustem spake unto Saum and said, "O Pehliva, I rejoice in
that I am sprung from thee, for my desires are not after the feast, neither
do I covet sleep or rest. My heart is fixed upon valour, a horse do I crave
and a saddle, a coat of mail and a helmet, and my delight is in the arrow.
Thine enemies will I vanquish, and may my courage be like unto
And Saum, when he had heard these words, was astonished, and blessed
Rustem yet again. And his eyes could not cease from gazing upon the face
of the boy, and he lingered in the land until a moon had run her
Now it befell that when yet two springs had passed, Rustem was
awakened from his slumber by a mighty roaring that shook the walls of the
house, even unto the foundation, and a cry went forth that the white elephant
of the King had broken its chain in fury, and that the housemates were
in danger. And Rustem, when he learned it, sprang from his bed, and desired
of the guards that they should suffer him to pass into the court that he
might conquer the beast. But the guards barred the way from him,
"How can we answer for it before the King if thou run into
But Rustem would not listen to their voice. He forced a passage
for himself with his mighty arms, with his strong fists he broke down the
barriers of the door. And when he was without he beheld how that all the
warriors were sore afraid of the elephant, because that he was mad with
rage. And Rustem was ashamed for them in his soul, and he ran towards the
beast with a loud cry. Then the elephant, when he saw him, raised his trunk
to strike him, but Rustem beat him upon the head with his club, and smote
him that he died. And when he had done this deed, he returned unto his
bed and slept until the morning. But the news of his prowess spread throughout
the house of the King and far into the land, even unto the realms of Saum.
And Zal, and all men with him, rejoiced because a hero was arisen in
Now, while these things were passing in the house of Zal, in the
land of Zaboulistan, Minuchihr made him ready to pass from the world, for
he had reached twice sixty years. He called before him Nauder his son,
and gave him wise counsels, and exhorted him that he should ever walk in
the paths of wisdom. And he bade him rest his throne upon the strength
of Saum and Zal, and the child that was sprung from their loins. Then when
he had spoken, Minuchihr closed his eyes and sighed, and there remained
of him only a memory in the world.
But Nauder forgot the counsels of his father. He vexed the land
and reigned in anger, and cruel deeds were committed in his name, so that
the people rose up and cried against the King. And men of might came unto
Saum and laid before him their plaints, and the petitions of the people,
and they prayed that he would wrest the crown from the head of Nauder,
and place it upon his own. But Saum was sore grieved when he had heard
these words, and he spake, saying-
"Not so, for it beseemeth me not to put out my hand after the crown,
for Nauder is of the race of the Kaianides, and unto them is given majesty
Then he girt his sword about his loins, and took with him a host,
and rode before the face of the Shah. And when he was come unto him, Saum
exhorted him with prayers and tears that he would turn him from the paths
of evil. And Nauder listened unto the voice of Saum the Pehliva, and joy
was abroad once more.
But the tidings spread, even into Turan, that Minuchihr the just
was departed, and that the hand of Nauder was heavy upon the land. And
Poshang, who was of the race of Tur, heard the news thereof with gladness,
for he deemed that the time was ripe to remember the vengeance that was
due unto the blood of his sire. Therefore he called about him his warriors,
and bade them go forth to war against Iran, saying the time was come to
avenge his father and draw unto himself the heritage. And while his son
Afrasiyab made ready the host to fulfil the desire of his father, there
spread the news that Saum the Pehliva had been gathered unto the dust,
and that Zal tarried in his house to build him a tomb. And the news gave
courage unto Afrasiyab and his men, and they made haste to gain the
But the grandson of Feridoun had learned of their coming, and he
prepared him to meet the foes of his land. Then he sent forth an army that
overshadowed the earth in its progress. But the army of Afrasiyab was great
also, and it covered the ground like unto ants and locusts. And both hosts
pitched their tents in the plains of Dehstan, and made them ready for the
fight. And the horses neighed loud, and the pawing of their hoofs shook
the deep places of the earth, and the dust of their trampling uprose even
unto heaven. Then when they had put their men into array, they fell upon
each other, and for two days did they rage in fierce combat, neither did
the victory lean to either side. And the clamour and confusion were mighty,
and earth and sky seemed blended into one. And the carnage was great, and
blood flowed like water, and heads fell from their trunks like unto autumn
leaves that are withered. But on the third day it came about that the upper
hand was given unto the men of Turan, and Nauder the King, and the flower
of his army with him, fell into the hands of the foe.
Then Afrasiyab cut off the head of Nauder the Shah, and sat himself
down upon the throne of light. And he proclaimed himself lord of Iran,
and required of all men that they should do him homage, and pour gifts
before his face. But the people would not listen unto his voice, and they
sent messengers into Seistan, and craved counsel of the Pehliva in their
distress. And Zal, when he heard their tidings, cast aside the sorrow for
Saum his father, and girded his loins in enmity against the son of Tur.
And he bade the Iranians choose out Zew, the son of Thamasp, of the blood
of Feridoun, of wisdom in speech, that he should rule over them on the
throne of the Kaianides. And the people did as Zal commanded.
Now the throne of Feridoun grew young again under the sway of Zew.
With power did he beat back the host of Turan, a covenant of peace did
he wring from their hands. And it was written that the Jihun should divide
the lands, and that the power of Zal the Pehliva should end where men take
up their abode in tents. And Zew ruled rightly in the sight of Ormuzd,
and God gave unto the land the key of abundance. Yet few were the years
that he commanded with equity, and Garshasp his son reigned in his stead.
But neither to him was it given to reign long with glory, and bitter fruit
sprouted yet again from the tree of misfortune. For the throne of the Kaianides
was empty, and Afrasiyab, when he learned thereof, followed the counsels
of Poshang his father, and hurried him unto the land of Iran, that he might
place himself upon the seat of power. And all the men of Iran, when they
learned thereof, were sore afraid, and they turned them once again unto
the son of Saum. And they spake unto him hard words, and heaped reproaches
upon him that he had not averted these dangers from their heads. And Zal
in his heart smiled at their ingratitude and lipwisdom, but he also sorrowed
with them and with his land. And he spake, saying-
"I have ever done for you what was fitting and right, and all my
life have I feared no enemy save only old age. But that enemy is now upon
me, therefore I charge you that ye look unto Rustem to deliver you. Howbeit
he shall be backed by the counsels of his father."
Then he called before him his son, who was yet of tender age, and
he said unto him-
"O my son, thy lips still smell of milk, and thy heart should go
out to pleasure. But the days are grave, and Iran looketh unto thee in
its danger. I must send thee forth to cope with heroes."
And Rustem answered and said, "Thou knowest, O my father, that
my desires are rather after war than pleasures. Give unto me, therefore,
a steed of strength and the mace of Saum thy father, and suffer that I
go out to meet the hosts of Ahriman."
Then Zal's heart laughed within him when he heard these words of
manhood. And he commanded that all the flocks of horses, both from Zaboulistan
and Cabul, be brought before his son, that he might choose from their midst
his steed of battle. And they were passed in order before Rustem, and he
laid upon the backs of each his hand of might to test them if they could
bear his weight of valour. And the horses shuddered as they bent beneath
his grasp, and sank upon their haunches in weakness. And thus did he do
with them all in turn, until he came unto the flocks of Cabul. Then he
perceived in their midst a mare mighty and strong, and there followed after
her a colt like to its mother, with the chest and shoulders of a lion.
And in strength it seemed like an elephant, and in colour it was as rose
leaves that have been scattered upon a saffron ground. Now Rustem, when
he had tested the colt with his eyes, made a running knot in his cord and
threw it about the beast. And he caught the colt in the snare, though the
mare defended it mightily. Then the keeper of the flock came before Rustem
"O youth puissant and tall, take not, I counsel thee, the horse
And Rustem answered him and asked, "To whom then pertaineth this
steed? I see no mark upon its flanks."
And the keeper said, "We know not its master, but rumours are rife
anent it throughout the land, and men name it the Rakush of Rustem. And
I warn thee, the mother will never permit thee to ride on it. Three years
has it been ready for the saddle, but none would she suffer to mount
Then Rustem, when he heard these words, swung himself upon the
colt with a great bound. And the mare, when she saw it, ran at him and
would have pulled him down, but when she had heard his voice she suffered
it. And the rose-coloured steed bore Rustem along the plains like unto
the wind. Then when he was returned, the son of Zal spake and said to the
"I pray thee, tell unto me what is the price of this
But the keeper replied, "If thou be Rustem, mount him, and retrieve
the sorrows of Iran. For his price is the land of Iran, and seated upon
him thou wilt save the world."
And Rustem rejoiced in Rakush (whose name, being interpreted, meaneth
the lightning), and Zal rejoiced with him, and they made them ready to
stand against Afrasiyab.
Now it was in the time of roses, and the meadows smiled with verdure,
when Zal led forth his hosts against the offspring of Tur. And the standard
of Kawah streamed upon the breeze, and Mihrab marched on the left, and
Gustahem marched on the right, and Zal went in the midst of the men, but
Rustem went at the head of all. And there followed after him a number like
to the sands of the sea, and the sounds of cymbals and bells made a noise
throughout the land like unto the day of judgment, when the earth shall
cry unto the dead, "Arise." And they marched in order even unto the shores
of the river Rai, and the two armies were but some farsangs
Albeit, when Afrasiyab heard that Rustem and Zal were come out
against him, he was in nowise dismayed, for he said, "The son is but a
boy, and the father is old; it will not, therefore, be hard for me to keep
my power in Iran." And he made ready his warriors with gladness of
But Zal, when he had drawn up his army in battle array, spake unto
"O men valiant in fight, we are great in number, but there is wanting
to us a chief, for we are without the counsels of a Shah, and verily no
labour succeedeth when the head is lacking. But rejoice, and be not downcast
in your hearts, for a Mubid hath revealed unto me that there yet liveth
one of the race of Feridoun to whom pertaineth the throne, and that he
is a youth wise and brave."
And when he had thus spoken, he turned him to Rustem and
"I charge thee, O my son, depart in haste for the Mount Alberz, neither
tarry by the way. And wend thee unto Kai Kobad, and say unto him that his
army awaiteth him, and that the throne of the Kaianides is
And Rustem, when he had heard his father's command, touched with
his eyelashes the ground before his feet, and straightway departed. In
his hand he bare a mace of might, and under him was Rakush the swift of
foot. And he rode till he came within sight of the Mount Alberz, whereon
had stood the cradle of his father. Then he beheld at its foot a house
beauteous like unto that of a king. And around it was spread a garden whence
came the sounds of running waters, and trees of tall stature uprose therein,
and under their shade, by a gurgling rill, there stood a throne, and a
youth, fair like to the moon, was seated thereon. And round about him leaned
knights girt with red sashes of power, and you would have said it was a
paradise for perfume and beauty.
Now when those within the garden beheld the son of Zal ride by,
they came out unto him and said-
"O Pehliva, it behoveth us not to let thee go farther before thou
hast permitted us to greet thee as our guest. We pray thee, therefore,
descend from off thy horse and drink the cup of friendship in our
But Rustem said, "Not so, I thank you, but suffer that I may pass
unto the mountain with an errand that brooketh no delay. For the borders
of Iran are encircled by the enemy, and the throne is empty of a king.
Wherefore I may not stay to taste of wine."
Then they answered him, "If thou goest unto the mount, tell us,
we pray thee, thy mission, for unto us is it given to guard its
And Rustem replied, "I seek there a king of the seed of Feridoun,
who cleansed the world of the abominations of Zohak, a youth who reareth
high his head. I pray ye, therefore, if ye know aught of Kai Kobad, that
ye give me tidings where I may find him."
Then the youth that sat upon the throne opened his mouth and said,
"Kai Kobad is known unto me, and if thou wilt enter this garden and rejoice
my soul with thy presence I will give thee tidings concerning
When Rustem heard these words he sprang from off his horse and
came within the gates. And the youth took his hand and led him unto the
steps of the throne. Then he mounted it yet again, and when he had filled
a cup with wine, he pledged the guest within his gates. Then he gave a
cup unto Rustem, and questioned him wherefore he sought for Kai Kobad,
and at whose desire he was come forth to find him. And Rustem told him
of the Mubids, and how that his father had sent him with all speed to pray
the young King that he would be their Shah, and lead the host against the
enemies of Iran. Then the youth, when he had listened to an end, smiled
"O Pehliva, behold me, for verily I am Kai Kobad of the race of
And Rustem, when he had heard these words, fell on the ground before
his feet, and saluted him Shah. Then the King raised him, and commanded
that the slaves should give him yet another cup of wine, and he bore it
to his lips in honour of Rustem, the son of Zal, the son of Saum, the son
of Neriman. And they gave a cup also unto Rustem, and he
"May the Shah live for ever!"
Then instruments of music rent the air, and joy spread over all the
assembly. But when silence was fallen yet again, Kai Kobad opened his mouth
"Hearken, O my knights, unto the dream that I had dreamed, and
ye will know wherefore I called upon you this day to stand in majesty about
my throne. For in my sleep I beheld two falcons white of wing, and they
came out unto me from Iran, and in their beaks they bare a sunny crown.
And the crown they placed upon my head. And behold now is Rustem come out
unto me like to a white bird, and his father, the nursling of a bird, hath
sent him, and they have given unto me the crown of Iran."
And Rustem, when he had heard this dream, said, "Surely thy vision
was given unto thee of God! But now, I pray thee, up and tarry no longer,
for the land of Iran groaneth sore and awaiteth thee with much
So Kai Kobad listened to the desires of Rustem, and swung him upon
his steed of war; and they rode day and night, until they came down from
the hills unto the green plains that are watered by murmuring streams.
And Rustem brought the King safely through the outposts of the enemy; and
when the night was fallen, he led him within the tents of Zal, and none
knew that he was come save only the Mubids. For seven days did they hold
counsel together, and on the eighth the message of the stars was received
with joy. And Zal made ready a throne of ivory and a banquet, and the crown
of Iran was placed upon the head of the young Shah. Then the nobles came
and did homage before him, and they revelled in wine till the night was
far spent. And they prayed him that he would make him ready to lead them
against the Turks. And Kai Kobad mustered the army and did as they
And soon the battle raged hot and strong many days, and deeds of
valour were done on either side; but the men of Turan could not stand against
the men of Iran, neither could the strength of Rustem be broken. For he
put forth the power of a lion, and his shadow extended for miles. And from
that day men named him Tehemten (which being interpreted, meaneth the strong-limbed),
for he did deeds of prowess in the sight of men. And Afrasiyab was discomfited,
and fled before him, and his army followed after, and their hearts were
bruised and full of care.
But the Iranians, when they beheld that their foes had vanished
before them, turned them unto Kai Kobad and did homage before his throne.
And Kai Kobad celebrated the victory with much pomp, as is the manner of
kings; and he placed Rustem upon his right hand and Zal upon his left,
and they feasted and made them merry with wine.
In the meantime Afrasiyab returned him unto Poshang his father,
who was of the race of Tur. And he came before him right sorrowful and
"O King, whose name is glorious, thou didst evil to provoke this
war. The land which Feridoun the great did give in ancient time unto Tur
the valiant, it hath been delivered unto thee, and the partition was just.
Why, therefore, seekest thou to enlarge thy border? Verily I say, if thou
haste not to make peace with Iran, Kai Kobad will send out against us an
army from the four quarters of the earth, and they will subdue us, and
by our own act we shall make the land too narrow for us. For the world
is not delivered of the race of Irij, and the noxious poison hath not been
converted into honey. For when one dieth another taketh his place, and
never do they leave the world without a master. And there is arisen of
the race of Saum a warrior called Rustem, and none can withstand him. He
hath broken the power of thine host, and the world hath not seen his like
for stoutness; and withal he is but little more than a weanling. Ponder
therefore, O King, how shall it be when he may be come to years of vigour.
Surely I am a man who desireth to possess the world, the stay of thine
army, and thy refuge in danger, but before this boy my power fadeth like
unto the mists that rise above the hills."
When the King of Turan had listened to these words, the tears of
bitterness fell from his eyes. Then he called before him a scribe and he
bade him write a letter unto Kai Kobad, the Shah. And the scribe adorned
it with many colours and fair designs. And the scribe
"In the name of Ormuzd, the ruler of the sun and moon, greeting
and salutation unto Kai Kobad the gracious from the meanest of his servants.
Listen unto me, O valiant Shah, and ponder the words that I shall write.
May grace fall upon the soul of Feridoun, who wove the woof of our race!
Why should we any longer hold the world in confusion? That which he fixed,
surely it was right, for he parted the world with equity, and we do wrong
before him when we depart from the grooves that he hath shaped. I pray
thee, therefore, let us no longer speak of Tur and his evil acts unto Irij,
for if Irij was the cause of our hates, surely by Minuchihr hath he been
avenged. Let us return, then, within the bounds that Feridoun hath blest,
and let us part the world anew, as it was parted for Tur, and Selim, and
Irij. For wherefore should we seek the land of another, since in the end
each will receive in heritage a spot no larger than his body? If then Kai
Kobad will listen unto my prayer, let the Jihun be the boundary between
us, and none of my people shall behold its waters, nay, not even in a dream,
neither shall any Iranian cross its floods, save only in
And the King put his seal upon the letter and sent it unto Kai
Kobad, and the messenger bare with him rich gifts of jewels and steeds
of Araby. And when Kai Kobad had read the letter he smiled in his spirit
"Verily not my people sought out this war but Afrasiyab, who deemed
that he could wrest unto himself the crown of Iran, and could subdue the
masterless land unto his will. And he hath but followed in the footsteps
of Tur his father, for even as he robbed the throne of Irij, so did Afrasiyab
take from it Nauder the Shah. And I say to you that I need not make peace
with you because of any fear, but I will do it because war is not pleasing
unto me. I will give unto you, therefore, the farther side of the river,
and it shall be a boundary between us, and I pray that Afrasiyab may find
rest within his borders."
And Kai Kobad did according to his word. He drew up a fresh covenant
between them, and planted a new tree in the garden of power. And the messenger
took the writing unto Poshang, King of Turan, and Kai Kobad proclaimed
that there was peace throughout the land.
Now for the space of an hundred years did Kai Kobad rule over Iran,
and he administered his realm with clemency, and the earth was quiet before
him, and he gat his people great honour, and I ask of you what king can
be likened unto him? But when this time had passed, his strength waned,
and he knew that a green leaf was about to fade. So he called before him
Kai Kaous his son, and gave unto him counsels many and wise. And when he
had done speaking he bade them make ready his grave, and he exchanged the
palace for the tomb. And thus endeth the history of Kai Kobad the glorious.
It behoveth us now to speak of his son.