The Epic of Kings
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The Epic of Kings.
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The Epic of Kings
Written 1010 A.C.E.
Translated by Helen Zimmern
Give ear unto the combat of Sohrab against Rustem, though it be a tale
replete with tears.
It came about that on a certain day Rustem arose from his couch,
and his mind was filled with forebodings. He bethought him therefore to
go out to the chase. So he saddled Rakush and made ready his quiver with
arrows. Then he turned him unto the wilds that lie near Turan, even in
the direction of the city of Samengan. And when he was come nigh unto it,
he started a herd of asses and made sport among them till that he was weary
of the hunt. Then he caught one and slew it and roasted it for his meal,
and when he had eaten it and broken the bones for the marrow, he laid himself
down to slumber, and Rakush cropped the pasture beside
Now while the hero was sleeping there passed by seven knights of
Turan, and they beheld Rakush and coveted him. So they threw their cords
at him to ensnare him. But Rakush, when he beheld their design, pawed the
ground in anger, and fell upon them as he had fallen upon the lion. And
of one man he bit off the head, and another he struck down under his hoofs,
and he would have overcome them all, but they were too many. So they ensnared
him and led him into the city, thinking in their hearts, "Verily a goodly
capture have we made." But Rustem when he awoke from his slumbers was downcast
and sore grieved when he saw not his steed, and he said unto
"How can I stand against the Turks, and how can I traverse the
And his heart was full of trouble. Then he sought for the traces
of the horse's hoofs, and he followed them, and they led him even unto
the gates of the city. Now when those within beheld Rustem, and that he
came before them on foot, the King and the nobles came forth to greet him,
and inquired of him how this was come about. Then Rustem told them how
Rakush was vanished while he slumbered, and how he had followed his track
even unto these gates. And he sware a great oath, and vowed that if his
courser were not restored unto him many heads should quit their trunks.
Then the King of Samengan, when he saw that Rustem was beside himself with
anger, spoke words of soothing, and said that none of his people should
do wrong unto the hero; and he begged him that he would enter into his
house and abide with him until that search had been made,
"Surely Rakush cannot be hid."
And Rustem was satisfied at these words, and cast suspicion from his
spirit, and entered the house of the King, and feasted with him, and beguiled
the hours with wine. And the King rejoiced in his guest, and encompassed
him with sweet singers and all honour. And when the night was fallen the
King himself led Rustem unto a couch perfumed with musk and roses, and
he bade him slumber sweetly until the morning. And he declared to him yet
again that all was well for him and for his steed.
Now when a portion of the night was spent, and the star of morning
stood high in the arch of heaven, the door of Rustem's chamber was opened,
and a murmur of soft voices came in from the threshold. And there stepped
within a slave bearing a lamp perfumed with amber, and a woman whose beauty
was veiled came after her. And as she moved musk was scattered from her
robes. And the women came nigh unto the bed of the hero heavy with wine
and slumber. And he was amazed when he saw them. And when he had roused
him somewhat he spake and said-
"Who art thou, and what is thy name and thy desire, and what seekest
thou from me in the dark night?"
Then the Peri-faced answered him, saying, "I am Tahmineh, the daughter
of the King of Samengan, of the race of the leopard and the lion, and none
of the princes of this earth are worthy of my hand, neither hath any man
seen me unveiled. But my heart is torn with anguish, and my spirit is tossed
with desire, for I have heard of thy deeds of prowess, and how thou fearest
neither Deev nor lion, neither leopard nor crocodile, and how thy hand
is swift to strike, and how thou didst venture alone into Mazinderan, and
how wild asses are devoured of thee, and how the earth groaneth under the
tread of thy feet, and how men perish at thy blows, and how even the eagle
dareth not swoop down upon her prey when she beholdeth thy sword. These
things and more have they told unto me, and mine eyes have yearned to look
upon thy face. And now hath God brought thee within the gates of my father,
and I am come to say unto thee that I am thine if thou wilt hear me, and
if thou wilt not, none other will I espouse. And consider, O Pehliva, how
that love hath obscured mine understanding and withdrawn me from the bosom
of discretion, yet peradventure God will grant unto me a son like to thee
for strength and valour, to whom shall be given the empire of the world.
And if thou wilt listen unto me, I will lead forth before thee Rakush thy
steed, and I will place under thy feet the land of Samengan."
Now while this moon of beauty was yet speaking, Rustem regarded
her. And he saw that she was fair, and that wisdom abode in her mind; and
when he heard of Rakush, his spirit was decided within him, and he held
that this adventure could not end save gloriously. So he sent a Mubid unto
the King and demanded the hand of Tahmineh from her father. And the King,
when he heard the news, was rejoiced, and gave his daughter unto the Pehliva,
and they concluded an alliance according to custom and the rites. And all
men, young and old, within the house and city of the King were glad at
this alliance, and called down blessings upon Rustem.
Now Rustem, when he was alone with the Peri-faced, took from his
arm an onyx that was known unto all the world. And he gave it to her, and
"Cherish this jewel, and if Heaven cause thee to give birth unto
a daughter, fasten it within her locks, and it will shield her from evil;
but if it be granted unto thee to bring forth a son, fasten it upon his
arm, that he may wear it like his father. And he shall be strong as Keriman,
of stature like unto Saum the son of Neriman, and of grace of speech like
unto Zal, my father."
The Peri-faced, when she had heard these words, was glad in his
presence. But when the day was passed there came in unto them the King
her father, and he told Rustem how that tidings of Rakush were come unto
his ears, and how that the courser would shortly be within the gates. And
Rustem, when he heard it, was filled with longing after his steed, and
when he knew that he was come he hastened forth to caress him. And with
his own hands he fastened the saddle, and gave thanks unto Ormuzd, who
had restored his joy between his hands. Then he knew that the time to depart
was come. And he opened his arms and took unto his heart Tahmineh the fair
of face, and he bathed her cheek with his tears and covered her hair with
kisses. Then he flung him upon Rakush, and the swift-footed bare him quickly
from out of her sight. And Tahmineh was sorrowful exceedingly, and Rustem
too was filled with thoughts as he turned him back into Zaboulistan. And
he pondered this adventure in his heart, but to no man did he speak of
what he had seen or done.
Now when nine moons had run their course there was born unto Tahmineh
a son in the likeness of his father, a babe whose mouth was filled with
smiles, wherefore men called him Sohrab. And when he numbered but one month
he was like unto a child of twelve, and when he numbered five years he
was skilled in arms and all the arts of war, and when ten years were rolled
above his head there was none in the land that could resist him in the
games of strength. Then he came before his mother and spake words of daring.
And he said-
"Since I am taller and stouter than my peers, teach unto me my
race and lineage, and what I shall say when men ask me the name of my sire.
But if thou refuse an answer unto my demands, I will strike thee out from
the rolls of the living."
When Tahmineh beheld the ardour of her son, she smiled in her spirit
because that his fire was like to that of his father. And she opened her
mouth and said-
"Hear my words, O my son, and be glad in thine heart, neither give
way in thy spirit to anger. For thou art the offspring of Rustem, thou
art descended from the seed of Saum and Zal, and Neriman was thy forefather.
And since God made the world it hath held none like unto Rustem, thy
Then she showed to him a letter written by the Pehliva, and gave
to him the gold and jewels Rustem had sent at his birth. And she spake
"Cherish these gifts with gratitude, for it is thy father who hath
sent them. Yet remember, O my son, that thou close thy lips concerning
these things; for Turan groaneth under the hand of Afrasiyab, and he is
foe unto Rustem the glorious. If, therefore, he should learn of thee, he
would seek to destroy the son for hatred of the sire. Moreover, O my boy,
if Rustem learned that thou wert become a mountain of valour, perchance
he would demand thee at my hands, and the sorrow of thy loss would crush
the heart of thy mother."
But Sohrab replied, "Nought can be hidden upon earth for aye. To
all men are known the deeds of Rustem, and since my birth be thus noble,
wherefore hast thou kept it dark from me so long? I will go forth with
an army of brave Turks and lead them unto Iran, I will cast Kai Kaous from
off his throne, I will give to Rustem the crown of the Kaianides, and together
we will subdue the land of Turan, and Afrasiyab shall be slain by my hands.
Then will I mount the throne in his stead. But thou shalt be called Queen
of Iran. for since Rustem is my father and I am his son no other kings
shall rule in this world, for to us alone behoveth it to wear the crowns
of might. And I pant in longing after the battlefield, and I desire that
the world should behold my prowess. But a horse is needful unto me, a steed
tall and strong of power to bear me, for it beseemeth me not to go on foot
before mine enemies."
Now Tahmineh, when she had heard the words of this boy, rejoiced
in her soul at his courage. So she bade the guardians of the flocks lead
out the horses before Sohrab her son. And they did as she had bidden, and
Sohrab surveyed the steeds, and tested their strength like as his father
had done before him of old, and he bowed them under his hand, and he could
not be satisfied. And thus for many days did he seek a worthy steed. Then
one came before him and told of a foal sprung from Rakush, the swift of
foot. When Sohrab heard the tidings he smiled, and bade that the foal be
led before him. And he tested it and found it to be strong. So he saddled
it and sprang upon its back and cried, saying-
"Now that I own a horse like thee, the world shall be made dark
Then he made ready for war against Iran, and the nobles and warriors
flocked around him. And when all was in order Sohrab came before his grandsire
and craved his counsel and his aid to go forth into the land of Iran and
seek out his father. And the King of Samengan, when he heard these wishes,
deemed them to be just, and he opened the doors of his treasures without
stint and gave unto Sohrab of his wealth, for he was filled with pleasure
at this boy. And he invested Sohrab with all the honours of a King, and
he bestowed on him all the marks of his good pleasure.
Meantime a certain man brought news unto Afrasiyab that Sohrab
was making ready an army to fall upon Iran, and to cast Kai Kaous from
off his throne. And he told Afrasiyab how the courage and valour of Sohrab
exceeded words. And Afrasiyab, when he heard this, hid not his contentment,
and he called before him Human and Barman, the doughty. Then he bade them
gather together an army and join the ranks of Sohrab, and he confided to
them his secret purpose, but he enjoined them to tell no man thereof. For
"Into our hands hath it been given to settle the course of the
world. For it is known unto me that Sohrab is sprung from Rustem the Pehliva,
but from Rustem must it be hidden who it is that goeth out against him,
then peradventure he will perish by the hands of this young lion, and Iran,
devoid of Rustem, will fall a prey into my hands. Then will we subdue Sohrab
also, and all the world will be ours. But if it be written that Sohrab
fall under the hand of Tehemten, then the grief he shall endure when he
shall learn that he hath slain his son will bring him to the grave for
So spake Afrasiyab in his guile, and when he had done unveiling
his black heart he bade the warriors depart unto Samengan. And they bare
with them gifts of great price to pour before the face of Sohrab. And they
bare also a letter filled with soft words. And in the letter Afrasiyab
lauded Sohrab for his resolve, and told him how that if Iran be subdued
the world would henceforth know peace, for upon his own head would he place
the crown of the Kaianides; and Turan, Iran, and Samengan should be as
When Sohrab had read this letter, and saw the gifts and the aid
sent out to him, he rejoiced aloud, for he deemed that now none could withstand
his might. So he caused the cymbals of departure to be clashed, and the
army made them ready to go forth. Then Sohrab led them into the land of
Iran. And their track was marked by desolation and destruction, for they
spared nothing that they passed. And they spread fire and dismay abroad,
and they marched on unstayed until they came unto the White Castle, the
fortress wherein Iran put its trust.
Now the guardian of the castle was named Hujir, and there lived
with him Gustahem the brave, but he was grown old, and could aid no longer
save with his counsels. And there abode also his daughter Gurdafrid, a
warlike maid, firm in the saddle, and practised in the fight. Now when
Hujir beheld from afar a dusky cloud of armed men he came forth to meet
them. And Sohrab, when he saw him, drew his sword, and demanded his name,
and bade him prepare to meet his end. And he taunted him with rashness
that he was come forth thus unaided to stand against a lion. But Hujir
answered Sohrab with taunts again, and vowed that he would sever his head
from his trunk and send it for a trophy unto the Shah. Yet Sohrab only
smiled when he heard these words, and he challenged Hujir to come near.
And they met in combat, and wrestled sore one with another, and stalwart
were their strokes and strong; but Sohrab overcame Hujir as though he were
an infant, and he bound him and sent him captive unto
But when those within the castle learned that their chief was bound
they raised great lamentation, and their fears were sore. And Gurdafrid
too, when she learned it, was grieved, but she was ashamed also for the
fate of Hujir. So she took forth burnished mail and clad herself therein,
and she hid her tresses under a helmet of Roum, and she mounted a steed
of battle and came forth before the walls like to a warrior. And she uttered
a cry of thunder, and flung it amid the ranks of Turan, and she defied
the champions to come forth to single combat. And none came, for they beheld
her how she was strong, and they knew not that it was a woman, and they
were afraid. But Sohrab, when he saw it, stepped forth and
"I will accept thy challenge, and a second prize will fall into
Then he girded himself and made ready for the fight. And the maid,
when she saw he was ready, rained arrows upon him with art, and they fell
quick like hail, and whizzed about his head; and Sohrab, when he saw it,
could not defend himself, and was angry and ashamed. Then he covered his
head with a shield and ran at the maid. But she, when she saw him approach,
dropped her bow and couched a lance, and thrust at Sohrab with vigour,
and shook him mightily, and it wanted little and she would have thrown
him from his seat. And Sohrab was amazed, and his wrath knew no bounds.
Then he ran at Gurdafrid with fury, and seized the reins of her steed,
and caught her by the waist, and tore her armour, and threw her upon the
ground. Yet ere he could raise his hand to strike her, she drew her sword
and shivered his lance in twain, and leaped again upon her steed. And when
she saw that the day was hers, she was weary of further combat, and she
sped back unto the fortress. But Sohrab gave rein unto his horse, and followed
after her in his great anger. And he caught her, and seized her, and tore
the helmet from off her head, for he desired to look upon the face of the
man who could withstand the son of Rustem. And lo! when he had done so,
there rolled forth from the helmet coils of dusky hue, and Sohrab beheld
it was a woman that had overcome him in the fight. And he was confounded.
But when he had found speech he said-
"If the daughters of Iran are like to thee, and go forth unto battle,
none can stand against this land."
Then he took his cord and threw it about her, and bound her in
its snare, saying-
"Seek not to escape me, O moon of beauty, for never hath prey like
unto thee fallen between my hands."
Then Gurdafrid, full of wile, turned unto him her face that was
unveiled, for she beheld no other means of safety, and she said unto
"O hero without flaw, is it well that thou shouldest seek to make
me captive, and show me unto the army? For they have beheld our combat,
and that I overcame thee, and surely now they will gibe when they learn
that thy strength was withstood by a woman. Better would it beseem thee
to hide this adventure, lest thy cheeks have cause to blush because of
me. Therefore let us conclude a peace together. The castle shall be thine,
and all it holds; follow after me then, and take possession of thine
Now Sohrab, when he had listened, was beguiled by her words and
her beauty, and he said-
"Thou dost wisely to make peace with me, for verily these walls
could not resist my might."
And he followed after her unto the heights of the castle, and he
stood with her before its gates. And Gustahem, when he saw them, opened
the portal, and Gurdafrid stepped within the threshold, but when Sohrab
would have followed after her she shut the door upon him. Then Sohrab saw
that she had befooled him, and his fury knew no bounds. But ere he was
recovered from his surprise she came out upon the battlements and scoffed
at him, and counselled him to go back whence he was come; for surely, since
he could not stand against a woman, he would fall an easy prey before Rustem,
when the Pehliva should have learned that robbers from Turan were broken
into the land. And Sohrab was made yet madder for her words, and he departed
from the walls in his wrath, and rode far in his anger, and spread terror
in his path. And he vowed that he would yet bring the maid into
In the meantime Gustahem the aged called before him a scribe, and
bade him write unto Kai Kaous all that was come about, and how an army
was come forth from Turan, at whose head rode a chief that was a child
in years, a lion in strength and stature. And he told how Hujir had been
bound, and how the fortress was like to fall into the hands of the enemy;
for there were none to defend it save only his daughter and himself and
he craved the Shah to come to their aid.
Albeit when the day had followed yet again upon the night, Sohrab
made ready his host to fall upon the castle. But when he came near thereto
he found it was empty, and the doors thereof stood open, and no warriors
appeared upon its walls. And he was surprised, for he knew not that in
the darkness the inmates were fled by a passage that was hidden under the
earth. And he searched the building for Gurdafrid, for his heart yearned
after her in love, and he cried aloud-
"Woe, woe is me that this moon is vanished behind the
Now when Kai Kaous had gotten the writing of Gustahem, he was sore
afflicted and much afraid, and he called about him his nobles and asked
their counsels. And he said-
"Who shall stand against this Turk? For Gustahem doth liken him
in power unto Rustem, and saith he resembleth the seed of
Then the warriors cried with one accord, "Unto Rustem alone can
we look in this danger!"
And Kai Kaous hearkened to their voice, and he called for a scribe
and dictated unto him a letter. And he wrote unto his Pehliva, and invoked
the blessings of Heaven upon his head, and he told him all that was come
to pass, and how new dangers threatened Iran, and how to Rustem alone could
he look for help in his trouble. And he recalled unto Tehemten all that
he had done for him in the days that were gone by, and he entreated him
once again to be his refuge. And he said-
"When thou shalt receive this letter, stay not to speak the word
that hangeth upon thy lips; and if thou bearest roses in thy hands, stop
not to smell them, but haste thee to help us in our
Then Kai Kaous sent forth Gew with this writing unto Zaboulistan,
and bade him neither rest nor tarry until he should stand before the face
of Rustem. And he said-
"When thou hast done my behest, turn thee again unto me; neither
abide within the courts of the Pehliva, nor linger by the
And Gew did as the Shah commanded, and took neither food nor rest
till he set foot within the gates of Rustem. And Rustem greeted him kindly,
and asked him of his mission; and when he had read the writing of the Shah,
he questioned Gew concerning Sohrab. For he said-
"I should not marvel if such an hero arose in Iran, but that a
warrior of renown should come forth from amid the Turks, I cannot believe
it. But thou sayest none knoweth whence cometh this knight. I have myself
a son in Samengan, but he is yet an infant, and his mother writeth to me
that he rejoiceth in the sports of his age, and though he be like to become
a hero among men, his time is not yet come to lead forth an army. And that
which thou sayest hath been done, surely it is not the work of a babe.
But enter, I pray thee, into my house, and we will confer together concerning
Then Rustem bade his cooks make ready a banquet, and he feasted
Gew, and troubled his head with wine, and caused him to forget cares and
time. But when morn was come Gew remembered the commands of the Shah that
he tarry not, but return with all speed, and he spake thereof to Rustem,
and prayed him to make known his resolve. But Rustem spake,
"Disquiet not thyself, for death will surely fall upon these men
of Turan. Stay with me yet another day and rest, and water thy lips that
are parched. For though this Sohrab be a hero like to Saum and Zal and
Neriman, verily he shall fall by my hands."
And he made ready yet another banquet, and three days they caroused
without ceasing. But on the fourth Gew uprose with resolve, and came before
Rustem girt for departure. And he said-
"It behoveth me to return, O Pehliva, for I bethink me how Kai
Kaous is a man hard and choleric, and the fear of Sohrab weigheth upon
his heart, and his soul burneth with impatience, and he hath lost sleep,
and hath hunger and thirst on this account. And he will be wroth against
us if we delay yet longer to do his behest."
Then Rustem said, "Fear not, for none on earth dare be angered
But he did as Gew desired, and made ready his army, and saddled
Rakush, and set forth from Zaboulistan, and a great train followed after
Now when they came nigh unto the courts of the Shah, the nobles
came forth to meet them, and do homage before Rustem. And when they were
come in Rustem gat him from Rakush and hastened into the presence of his
lord. But Kai Kaous, when he beheld him, was angry, and spake not, and
his brows were knit with fury; and when Rustem had done obeisance before
him, he unlocked the doors of his mouth, and words of folly escaped his
lips. And he said-
"Who is Rustem, that he defieth my power and disregardeth my commands?
If I had a sword within my grasp I would split his head like to an orange.
Seize him, I command, and hang him upon the nearest gallows, and let his
name be never spoken in my presence."
When he heard these words Gew trembled in his heart, but he said,
"Dost thou put forth thy hand against Rustem?"
And the Shah when he heard it was beside himself, and he cried
with a loud voice that Gew be hanged together with the other; and he bade
Tus lead them forth. And Tus would have led them out, for he hoped the
anger of the Shah would be appeased; but Rustem broke from his grasp and
stood before Kai Kaous, and all the nobles were filled with fear when they
saw his anger. And he flung reproaches at Kai Kaous, and he recalled to
him his follies, and the march into Mazinderan and Hamaveran, and his flight
into Heaven; and he reminded him how that but for Rustem he would not now
be seated upon the throne of light. And he bade him threaten Sohrab the
Turk with his gallows, and he said-
"I am a free man and no slave, and am servant alone unto God; and
without Rustem Kai Kaous is as nothing. And the world is subject unto me,
and Rakush is my throne, and my sword is my seal, and my helmet my crown.
And but for me, who called forth Kai Kobad, thine eyes had never looked
upon this throne. And had I desired it I could have sat upon its seat.
But now am I weary of thy follies, and I will turn me away from Iran, and
when this Turk shall have put you under his yoke I shall not learn
Then he turned him and strode from out the presence-chamber. And
he sprang upon Rakush, who waited without, and he was vanished from before
their eyes ere yet the nobles had rallied from their astonishment. And
they were downcast and oppressed with boding cares, and they held counsel
among themselves what to do; for Rustem was their mainstay, and they knew
that, bereft of his arm and counsel, they could not stand against this
Turk. And they blamed Kai Kaous, and counted over the good deeds that Rustem
had done for him, and they pondered and spake long. And in the end they
resolved to send a messenger unto Kai Kaous, and they chose from their
midst Gudarz the aged, and bade him stand before the Shah. And Gudarz did
as they desired, and he spake long and without fear, and he counted over
each deed that had been done by Rustem; and he reproached the Shah with
his ingratitude, and he said how Rustem was the shepherd, and how the flock
could not be led without its leader. And Kai Kaous heard him unto the end,
and he knew that his words were the words of reason and truth, and he was
ashamed of that which he had done, and confounded when he beheld his acts
thus naked before him. And he humbled himself before Gudarz, and
"That which thou sayest, surely it is right."
And he entreated Gudarz to go forth and seek Rustem, and bid him forget
the evil words of his Shah, and bring him back to the succour of Iran.
And Gudarz hastened forth to do as Kai Kaous desired, and he told the nobles
of his mission and they joined themselves unto him, and all the chiefs
of Iran went forth in quest of Rustem. And when they had found him, they
prostrated themselves into the dust before him, and Gudarz told him of
his mission, and he prayed him to remember that Kai Kaous was a man devoid
of understanding, whose thoughts flowed over like to new wine that fermenteth.
And he said-
"Though Rustem be angered against the King, yet hath the land of
Iran done no wrong that it should perish at his hands. Yet, if Rustem save
it not, surely it will fall under this Turk."
But Rustem said, "My patience hath an end, and I fear none but
God. What is this Kai Kaous that he should anger me? and what am I that
I have need of him? I have not deserved the evil words that he spake unto
me, but now will I think of them no longer, but cast aside all thoughts
When the nobles heard these words they grew pale, and fear took
hold on their hearts. But Gudarz, full of wisdom, opened his mouth and
"O Pehliva! the land, when it shall learn of this, will deem that
Rustem is fled before the face of this Turk; and when men shall believe
that Tehemten is afraid, they will cease to combat, and Iran will be downtrodden
at his hands. Turn thee not, therefore, at this hour from thy allegiance
to the Shah, and tarnish not thy glory by this retreat, neither suffer
that the downfall of Iran rest upon thy head. Put from thee, therefore,
the words that Kai Kaous spake in his empty anger, and lead us forth to
battle against this Turk. For it must not be spoken that Rustem feared
to fight a beardless boy."
And Rustem listened and pondered these words in his heart, and
knew that they were good. But he said-
"Fear hath never been known of me, neither hath Rustem shunned
the din of arms, and I depart not because of Sohrab, but because that scorn
and insult have been my recompense."
Yet when he had pondered a while longer, he saw that he must return
unto the Shah. So he did that which he knew to be right, and he rode till
he came unto the gates of Kai Kaous, and he strode with a proud step into
Now when the Shah beheld Rustem from afar, he stepped down from
off his throne and came before his Pehliva, and craved his pardon for that
which was come about. And he said how he had been angered because Rustem
had tarried in his coming, and how haste was his birthright, and how he
had forgotten himself in his vexation. But now was his mouth filled with
the dust of repentance. And Rustem said-
"The world is the Shah's, and it behoveth thee to do as beseemeth
thee best with thy servants. And until old age shall my loins be girt in
fealty unto thee. And may power and majesty be thine for
And Kai Kaous answered and said, "O my Pehliva, may thy days be
blessed unto the end!"
Then he invited him to feast with him, and they drank wine till
far into the night, and held counsel together how they should act; and
slaves poured rich gifts before Rustem, and the nobles rejoiced, and all
was well again within the gates of the King.
Then when the sun had risen and clothed the world with love, the
clarions of war were sounded throughout the city, and men made them ready
to go forth in enmity before the Turks. And the legions of Persia came
forth at the behest of their Shah, and their countless thousands hid the
earth under their feet, and the air was darkened by their spears. And when
they were come unto the plains where stood the fortress of Hujir, they
set up their tents as was their manner. So the watchmen saw them from the
battlements, and he set up a great cry. And Sohrab heard the cry, and questioned
the man wherefore he shouted; and when he learned that the enemy were come,
he rejoiced, and demanded a cup of wine, and drank to their destruction.
Then he called forth Human and showed him the army, and bade him be of
good cheer, for he said that he saw within its ranks no hero of mighty
mace who could stand against himself. So he bade his warriors to a banquet
of wine, and he said that they would feast until the time was come to meet
their foes in battle. And they did as Sohrab said.
Now when night had thrown her mantle over the earth, Rustem came
before the Shah and craved that he would suffer him to go forth beyond
the camp that he might see what manner of man was this stripling. And Kai
Kaous granted his request, and said that it was worthy a Pehliva of renown.
Then Rustem went forth disguised in the garb of a Turk, and he entered
the castle in secret, and he came within the chamber where Sohrab held
his feast. Now when he had looked upon the boy he saw that he was like
to a tall cypress of good sap, and that his arms were sinewy and strong
like to the flanks of a camel, and that his stature was that of a hero.
And he saw that round about him stood brave warriors. And slaves with golden
bugles poured wine before them, and they were all glad, neither did they
dream of sorrow. Then it came about that while Rustem regarded them, Zindeh
changed his seat and came nigh unto the spot where Rustem was watching.
Now Zindeh was brother unto Tahmineh, and she had sent him forth with her
son that he might point out to him his father, whom he alone knew of all
the army, and she did it that harm might not befall if the heroes should
meet in battle. Now Zindeh, when he had changed his seat, thought that
he espied a watcher, and he strode towards the place where Rustem was hid,
and he came before him and said-
"Who art thou? Come forth into the light that I may behold thy
But ere he could speak further, Rustem had lifted up his hand and
struck him, and laid him dead upon the ground.
Now Sohrab, when he saw that Zindeh was gone out, was disquieted,
and he asked of his slaves wherefore the hero returned not unto the banquet.
So they went forth to seek him, and when they had found him in his blood,
they came and told Sohrab what they had seen. But Sohrab would not believe
it; so he ran to the spot and bade them bring torches, and all the warriors
and singing girls followed after him. Then when Sohrab saw that it was
true he was sore grieved; but he suffered not that the banquet be ended,
for he would not that the spirits of his men be damped with pity. So they
went back yet again to the feast.
Meanwhile Rustem returned him to the camp, and as he would have
entered the lines he encountered Gew, who went around to see that all was
safe. And Gew, when he saw a tall man clad in the garb of a Turk, drew
his sword and held himself ready for combat. But Rustem smiled and opened
his mouth, and Gew knew his voice, and came to him and questioned him what
he did without in the darkness. And Rustem told him. Then he went before
Kai Kaous also and related what he had seen, and how no man like unto Sohrab
was yet come forth from amid the Turks. And he likened him unto Saum, the
son of Neriman.
Now when the morning was come, Sohrab put on his armour. Then he
went unto a height whence he could look down over the camp of the Iranians.
And he took with him Hujir, and spake to him, saying-
"Seek not to deceive me, nor swerve from the paths of truth. For
if thou reply unto my questions with sincerity, I will loosen thy bonds
and give thee treasures; but if thou deceive me, thou shalt languish till
death in thy chains."
And Hujir said, "I will give answer unto thee according to my
Then Sohrab said, "I am about to question thee concerning the nobles
whose camps are spread beneath our feet, and thou shalt name unto me those
whom I point out. Behold yon tent of gold brocade, adorned with skins of
leopard, before whose doors stand an hundred elephants of war. Within its
gates is a throne of turquoise, and over it floateth a standard of violet
with a moon and sun worked in its centre. Tell unto me now whose is this
pavilion that standeth thus in the midst of the whole
And Hujir replied, "It pertaineth unto the Shah of
Then Sohrab said, "I behold on its right hand yet another tent draped
in the colours of mourning, and above it floateth a standard whereon is
worked an elephant."
And Hujir said, "It is the tent of Tus, the son of Nuder, for he
beareth an elephant as his ensign."
Then Sohrab said, "Whose is the camp in which stand many warriors
clad in rich armour? A flag of gold with a lion worked upon it waveth along
And Hujir said, "It belongeth unto Gudarz the brave. And those
who stand about it are his sons, for eighty men of might are sprung from
Then Sohrab said, "To whom belongeth the tent draped with green
tissues? Before its doors is planted the flag of Kawah. I see upon its
throne a Pehliva, nobler of mien than all his fellows, whose head striketh
the stars. And beside him standeth a steed tall as he, and his standard
showeth a lion and a writhing dragon."
When Hujir heard this question he thought within himself, "If I
tell unto this lion the signs whereby he may know Rustem the Pehliva, surely
he will fall upon him and seek to destroy him. It will beseem me better,
therefore, to keep silent, and to omit his name from the list of the heroes."
So he said unto Sohrab-
"This is some ally who is come unto Kai Kaous from far Cathay,
and his name is not known unto me."
And Sohrab when he heard it was downcast, and his heart was sad
that he could nowhere discover Rustem; and though it seemed unto him that
he beheld the marks whereby his mother said that he would know him, he
could not credit the words of his eyes against the words of Hujir. Still
he asked yet again the name of the warrior, and yet again Hujir denied
it unto him, for it was written that that should come to pass which had
been decreed. But Sohrab ceased not from his questionings. And he
"Who dwelleth beneath the standard with the head of a
And Hujir said, "It is Gew, the son of Gudarz, who dwelleth within
that tent, and men call him Gew the valiant."
Then Sohrab said, "Whose is the seat over which are raised awnings
and brocades of Roum, that glisten with gold in the
And Hujir said, "It is the throne of Fraburz, the son of the
Then Sohrab said, "It beseemeth the son of a Shah to surround himself
with such splendour."
And he pointed unto a tent with trappings of yellow that was encircled
by flags of many colours. And he questioned of its owner.
And Hujir said, "Guraz the lion-hearted is master
Then Sohrab, when he could not learn the tent of his father, questioned
Hujir concerning Rustem, and he asked yet a third time of the green tent.
Yet Hujir ever replied that he knew not the name of its master. And when
Sohrab pressed him concerning Rustem, he said that Rustem lingered in Zaboulistan,
for it was the feast of roses. But Sohrab refused to give ear unto the
thought that Kai Kaous should go forth to battle without the aid of Rustem,
whose might none could match. So he said unto Hujir-
"An thou show not unto me the tents of Rustem, I will strike thy
head from off thy shoulders, and the world shall fade before thine eyes.
Choose, therefore, the truth or thy life."
And Hujir thought within himself, "Though five score men cannot
withstand Rustem when he be roused to battle-fury, my mind misgiveth me
that he may have found his equal in this boy. And, for that the stripling
is younger, it might come about that he subdue the Pehliva. What recketh
my life against the weal of Iran? I will therefore abandon me into his
hands rather than show unto him the marks of Rustem the Pehliva." So he
"Why seekest thou to know Rustem the Pehliva? Surely thou wilt
know him in battle, and he shall strike thee dumb, and quell thy pride
of youth. Yet I will not show him unto thee."
When Sohrab heard these words he raised his sword and smote Hujir,
and made an end of him with a great blow. Then he made himself ready for
fight, and leaped upon his steed of battle, and he rode till he came unto
the camp of the Iranians, and he broke down the barriers with his spear,
and fear seized upon all men when they beheld his stalwart form and majesty
of mien and action. Then Sohrab opened his mouth, and his voice of thunder
was heard even unto the far ends of the camp. And he spake words of pride,
and called forth the Shah to do battle with him, and he sware with a loud
voice that the blood of Zindeh should be avenged. Now when Sohrab's voice
had rung throughout the camp, confusion spread within its borders, and
none of those who stood about the throne would accept his challenge for
the Shah. And with one accord they said that Rustem was their sole support,
and that his sword alone could cause the sun to weep. And Tus sped him
within the courts of Rustem. And Rustem said-
"The hardest tasks doth Kai Kaous ever lay upon
But the nobles would not suffer him to linger, neither to waste time
in words, and they buckled upon him his armour, and they threw his leopard-skin
about him, and they saddled Rakush, and made ready the hero for the strife.
And they pushed him forth, and called after him-
"Haste, haste, for no common combat awaiteth thee, for verily Ahriman
standeth before us."
Now when Rustem was come before Sohrab, and beheld the youth, brave
and strong, with a breast like unto Saum, he said to
"Let us go apart from hence, and step forth from out the lines
of the armies."
For there was a zone between the two camps that none might pass.
And Sohrab assented to the demand of Rustem, and they stepped out into
it, and made them ready for single combat. But when Sohrab would have fallen
upon him, the soul of Rustem melted with compassion, and he desired to
save a boy thus fair and valiant. So he said unto him-
"O young man, the air is warm and soft, but the earth is cold.
I have pity upon thee, and would not take from thee the boon of life. Yet
if we combat together, surely thou wilt fall by my hands, for none have
withstood my power, neither men nor Deevs nor dragons. Desist, therefore,
from this enterprise, and quit the ranks of Turan, for Iran hath need of
heroes like unto thee."
Now while Rustem spake thus, the heart of Sohrab went out to him.
And he looked at him wistfully, and said-
"O hero, I am about to put unto thee a question, and I entreat
of thee that thou reply to me according to the truth. Tell unto me thy
name, that my heart may rejoice in thy words, for it seemeth unto me that
thou art none other than Rustem, the son of Zal, the son of Saum, the son
But Rustem replied, "Thou errest, I am not Rustem, neither am I
sprung from the race of Neriman. Rustem is a Pehliva, but I, I am a slave,
and own neither a crown nor a throne."
These words spake Rustem that Sohrab might be afraid when he beheld
his prowess, and deem that yet greater might was hidden in the camp of
his enemy. But Sohrab when he heard these words was sad, and his hopes
that were risen so high were shattered, and the day that had looked so
bright was made dark unto his eyes. Then he made him ready for the combat,
and they fought until their spears were shivered and their swords hacked
like unto saws. And when all their weapons were bent, they betook them
unto clubs, and they waged war with these until they were broken. Then
they strove until their mail was torn and their horses spent with exhaustion,
and even then they could not desist, but wrestled with one another with
their hands till that the sweat and blood ran down from their bodies. And
they contended until their throats were parched and their bodies weary,
and to neither was given the victory. Then they stayed them a while to
rest, and Rustem thought within his mind how all his days he had not coped
with such a hero. And it seemed to him that his contest with the White
Deev had been as nought to this.
Now when they had rested a while they fell to again, and they fought
with arrows, but still none could surpass the other. Then Rustem strove
to hurl Sohrab from his steed, but it availed him nought, and he could
shake him no more than the mountain can be moved from its seat. So they
betook themselves again unto clubs, and Sohrab aimed at Rustem with might
and smote him, and Rustem reeled beneath the stroke, and bit his lips in
agony. Then Sohrab vaunted his advantage, and-bade Rustem go and measure
him with his equals; for though his strength be great, he could not stand
against a youth. So they went their ways, and Rustem fell upon the men
of Turan, and spread confusion far and wide among their ranks; and Sohrab
raged along the lines of Iran, and men and horses fell under his hands.
And Rustem was sad in his soul, and he turned with sorrow into his camp.
But when he saw the destruction Sohrab had wrought his anger was kindled,
and he reproached the youth, and challenged him to come forth yet again
to single combat. But because that the day was far spent they resolved
to rest until the morrow.
Then Rustem went before Kai Kaous and told him of this boy of valour,
and he prayed unto Ormuzd that He would give him strength to vanquish his
foe. Yet he made ready also his house lest he should fall in the fight,
and he commanded that a tender message be borne unto Rudabeh, and he sent
words of comfort unto Zal, his father. And Sohrab, too, in his camp lauded
the might of Rustem, and he said how the battle had been sore, and how
his mind had misgiven him of the issue. And he spake unto Human,
"My mind is filled with thoughts of this aged man, mine adversary,
for it would seem unto me that his stature is like unto mine, and that
I behold about him the tokens that my mother recounted unto me. And my
heart goeth out towards him, and I muse if it be Rustem, my father. For
it behoveth me not to combat him. Wherefore, I beseech thee, tell unto
me how this may be."
But Human answered and said, "Oft have I looked upon the face of
Rustem in battle, and mine eyes have beheld his deeds of valour; but this
man in no wise resembleth him, nor is his manner of wielding his club the
These things spake Human in his vileness, because that Afrasiyab
had enjoined him to lead Sohrab into destruction. And Sohrab held his peace,
but he was not wholly satisfied.
Now when the day had begun to lighten the sky and clear away the
shadows, Rustem and Sohrab strode forth unto the midway spot that stretched
between the armies. And Sohrab bare in his hands a mighty club, and the
garb of battle was upon him; but his mouth was full of smiles, and he asked
of Rustem how he had rested, and he said-
"Wherefore hast thou prepared thy heart for battle? Cast from thee,
I beg, this mace and sword of vengeance, and let us doff our armour, and
seat ourselves together in amity, and let wine soften our angry deeds.
For it seemeth unto me that this conflict is impure. And if thou wilt listen
to my desires, my heart shall speak to thee of love, and I will make the
tears of shame spring up into thine eyes. And for this cause I ask thee
yet again, tell me thy name, neither hide it any longer, for I behold that
thou art of noble race. And it would seem unto me that thou art Rustem,
the chosen one, the Lord of Zaboulistan, the son of Zal, the son of Saum
But Rustem answered, "O hero of tender age, we are not come forth
to parley but to combat, and mine ears are sealed against thy words of
lure. I am an old man, and thou art young, but we are girded for battle,
and the Master of the world shall decide between us."
Then Sohrab said, "O man of many years, wherefore wilt thou not
listen to the counsel of a stripling? I desired that thy soul should leave
thee upon thy bed, but thou hast elected to perish in the combat. That
which is ordained it must be done, therefore let us make ready for the
So they made them ready, and when they had bound their steeds they
fell upon each other, and the crash of their encounter was heard like thunder
throughout the camps. And they measured their strength from the morning
until the setting of the sun. And when the day was about to vanish, Sohrab
seized upon Rustem by the girdle and threw him upon the ground, and kneeled
upon him, and drew forth his sword from his scabbard, and would have severed
his head from his trunk. Then Rustem knew that only wile could save him.
So he opened his mouth and said-
"O young man, thou knowest not the customs of the combat. It is
written in the laws of honour that he who overthroweth a brave man for
the first time should not destroy him, but preserve him for fight a second
time, then only is it given unto him to kill his adversary."
And Sohrab listened to Rustem's words of craft and stayed his hand,
and he let the warrior go, and because that the day was ended he sought
to fight no more, but turned him aside and chased the deer until the night
was spent. Then came to him Human, and asked of the adventures of the day.
And Sohrab told him how he had vanquished the tall man, and how he had
granted him freedom. And Human reproached him with his folly, and
"Alas, young man, thou didst fall into a snare, for this is not
the custom among the brave. And now perchance thou wilt yet fall under
the hands of this warrior."
Sohrab was abashed when he heard the words of Human, but he
"Be not grieved, for in an hour we meet again in battle, and verily
he will not stand a third time against my youthful strength."
Now while Sohrab was thus doing, Rustem was gone beside a running
brook, and laved his limbs, and prayed to God in his distress. And he entreated
of Ormuzd that He would grant him such strength that the victory must be
his. And Ormuzd heard him, and gave to him such strength that the rock
whereon Rustem stood gave way under his feet, because it had not the power
to bear him. Then Rustem saw it was too much, and he prayed yet again that
part thereof be taken from him. And once more Ormuzd listened to his voice.
Then when the time for combat was come, Rustem turned him to the meeting-place,
and his heart was full of cares and his face of fears. But Sohrab came
forth like a giant refreshed, and he ran at Rustem like to a mad elephant,
and he cried with a voice of thunder-
"O thou who didst flee from battle, wherefore art thou come out
once more against me? But I say unto thee, this time shall thy words of
guile avail thee nought."
And Rustem, when he heard him, and looked upon him, was seized
with misgiving, and he learned to know fear. So he prayed to Ormuzd that
He would restore to him the power He had taken back. But he suffered not
Sohrab to behold his fears, and they made them ready for the fight. And
he closed upon Sohrab with all his new-found might, and shook him terribly,
and though Sohrab returned his attacks with vigour, the hour of his overthrow
was come. For Rustem took him by the girdle and hurled him unto the earth,
and he broke his back like to a reed, and he drew forth his sword to sever
his body. Then Sohrab knew it was the end, and he gave a great sigh, and
writhed in his agony, and he said-
"That which is come about, it is my fault, and henceforward will
my youth be a theme of derision among the people. But I sped not forth
for empty glory, but I went out to seek my father; for my mother had told
me by what tokens I should know him, and I perish for longing after him.
And now have my pains been fruitless, for it hath not been given unto me
to look upon his face. Yet I say unto thee, if thou shouldest become a
fish that swimmeth in the depths of the ocean, if thou shouldest change
into a star that is concealed in the farthest heaven, my father would draw
thee forth from thy hiding-place, and avenge my death upon thee when he
shall learn that the earth is become my bed. For my father is Rustem the
Pehliva, and it shall be told unto him how that Sohrab his son perished
in the quest after his face."
When Rustem heard these words his sword fell from out of his grasp,
and he was shaken with dismay. And there broke from his heart a groan as
of one whose heart was racked with anguish. And the earth became dark before
his eyes, and he sank down lifeless beside his son. But when he had opened
his eyes once more, he cried unto Sohrab in the agony of his spirit. And
"Bearest thou about thee a token of Rustem, that I may know that
the words which thou speakest are true? For I am Rustem the unhappy, and
may my name be struck from the lists of men!"
When Sohrab heard these words his misery was boundless, and he
"If thou art indeed my father, then hast thou stained thy sword
in the life-blood of thy son. And thou didst it of thine obstinacy. For
I sought to turn thee unto love, and I implored of thee thy name, for I
thought to behold in thee the tokens recounted of my mother. But I appealed
unto thy heart in vain, and now is the time gone by for meeting. Yet open,
I beseech thee, mine armour, and regard the jewel upon mine arm. For it
is an onyx given unto me by my father, as a token whereby he should know
Then Rustem did as Sohrab bade him, and he opened his mail and
saw the onyx; and when he had seen it he tore his clothes in his distress,
and he covered his head with ashes. And the tears of penitence ran from
his eyes, and he roared aloud in his sorrow. But Sohrab
"It is in vain, there is no remedy. Weep not, therefore, for doubtless
it was written that this should be."
Now when the sun was set, and Rustem returned not to the camp,
the nobles of Iran were afraid, and they went forth to seek him. And when
they were gone but a little way they came upon Rakush, and when they saw
that he was alone they raised a wailing, for they deemed that of a surety
Rustem was perished. And they went and told Kai Kaous thereof, and he
"Let Tus go forth and see if this indeed be so, and if Rustem be
truly fallen, let the drums call men unto battle that we may avenge him
upon this Turk."
Now Sohrab, when he beheld afar off the men that were come out
to seek Rustem, turned to his father and said-
"I entreat of thee that thou do unto me an act of love. Let not
the Shah fall upon the men of Turan, for they came not forth in enmity
to him but to do my desire, and on my head alone resteth this expedition.
Wherefore I desire not that they should perish when I can defend them no
longer. As for me, I came like the thunder and I vanish like the wind,
but perchance it is given unto us to meet again above."
Then Rustem promised to do the desires of Sohrab. And he went before
the men of Iran, and when they beheld him yet alive they set up a great
shout, but when they saw that his clothes were torn, and that he bare about
him the marks of sorrow, they asked of him what was come to pass. Then
he told them how he had caused a noble son to perish. And they were grieved
for him, and joined in his wailing. Then he bade one among them go forth
into the camp of Turan, and deliver this message unto Human. And he sent
word unto him, saying-
"The sword of vengeance must slumber in the scabbard. Thou art
now leader of the host, return, therefore, whence thou camest, and depart
across the river ere many days be fallen. As for me, I will fight no more,
yet neither will I speak unto thee again, for thou didst hide from my son
the tokens of his father, of thine iniquity thou didst lead him into this
Then when he had thus spoken, Rustem turned him yet again unto
his son. And the nobles went with him, and they beheld Sohrab, and heard
his groans of pain. And Rustem, when he saw the agony of the boy, was beside
himself, and would have made an end of his own life, but the nobles suffered
it not, and stayed his hand. Then Rustem remembered him that Kai Kaous
had a balm mighty to heal. And he prayed Gudarz go before the Shah, and
bear unto him a message of entreaty from Rustem his servant. And he
"O Shah, if ever I have done that which was good in thy sight,
if ever my hand have been of avail unto thee, recall now my benefits in
the hour of my need, and have pity upon my dire distress. Send unto me,
I pray thee, of the balm that is among thy treasures, that my son may be
healed by thy grace."
And Gudarz outstripped the whirlwind in his speed to bear unto
the Shah this message. But the heart of Kai Kaous was hardened, and he
remembered not the benefits he had received from Rustem, and he recalled
only the proud words that he had spoken before him. And he was afraid lest
the might of Sohrab be joined to that of his father, and that together
they prove mightier than he, and turn upon him. So he shut his ear unto
the cry of his Pehliva. And Gudarz bore back the answer of the Shah, and
"The heart of Kai Kaous is flinty, and his evil nature is like
to a bitter gourd that ceaseth never to bear fruit. Yet I counsel thee,
go before him thyself, and see if peradventure thou soften this
And Rustem in his grief did as Gudarz counselled, and turned to
go before the Shah, but he was not come before him ere a messenger overtook
him, and told unto him that Sohrab was departed from the world. Then Rustem
set up a wailing such as the earth hath not heard the like of, and he heaped
reproaches upon himself, and he could not cease from plaining the son that
was fallen by his hands. And he cried continually-
"I that am old have killed my son. I that am strong have uprooted
this mighty boy. I have torn the heart of my child, I have laid low the
head of a Pehliva."
Then he made a great fire, and flung into it his tent of many colours,
and his trappings of Roum, his saddle, and his leopard-skin, his armour
well tried in battle, and all the appurtenances of his throne. And he stood
by and looked on to see his pride laid in the dust. And he tore his flesh,
and cried aloud-
"My heart is sick unto death."
Then he commanded that Sohrab be swathed in rich brocades of gold worthy
of his body. And when they had enfolded him, and Rustem learned that the
Turanians had quitted the borders, he made ready his army to return unto
Zaboulistan. And the nobles marched before the bier, and their heads were
covered with ashes, and their garments were torn. And the drums of the
war-elephants were shattered, and the cymbals broken, and the tails of
the horses were shorn to the root, and all the signs of mourning were
Now Zal, when he saw the host returning thus in sorrow, marvelled
what was come about; for he beheld Rustem at their head, wherefore he knew
that the wailing was not for his son. And he came before Rustem and questioned
him. And Rustem led him unto the bier and showed unto him the youth that
was like in feature and in might unto Saum the son of Neriman, and he told
him all that was come to pass, and how this was his son, who in years was
but an infant, but a hero in battle. And Rudabeh too came out to behold
the child, and she joined her lamentations unto theirs. Then they built
for Sohrab a tomb like to a horse's hoof, and Rustem laid him therein in
a chamber of gold perfumed with ambergris. And he covered him with brocades
of gold. And when it was done, the house of Rustem grew like to a grave,
and its courts were filled with the voice of sorrow. And no joy would enter
into the heart of Rustem, and it was long before he held high his
Meantime the news spread even unto Turan, and there too did all
men grieve and weep for the child of prowess that was fallen in his bloom.
And the King of Samengan tore his vestments, but when his daughter learned
it she was beside herself with affliction. And Tahmineh cried after her
son, and bewailed the evil fate that had befallen him, and she heaped black
earth upon her head, and tore her hair, and wrung her hands, and rolled
on the ground in her agony. And her mouth was never weary of plaining.
Then she caused the garments of Sohrab to be brought unto her, and his
throne and his steed. And she regarded them, and stroked the courser and
poured tears upon his hoofs, and she cherished the robes as though they
yet contained her boy, and she pressed the head of the palfrey unto her
breast, and she kissed the helmet that Sohrab had worn. Then with his sword
she cut off the tail of his steed and set fire unto the house of Sohrab,
and she gave his gold and jewels unto the poor. And when a year had thus
rolled over her bitterness, the breath departed from out her body, and
her spirit went forth after Sohrab her son.