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The African Wars
By Julius Caesar

Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn

Chapter 1 

Caesar, advancing by moderate journeys, and continuing his march without
intermission, arrived at Lilybaeum, on the 14th day before the calends
of January. Designing to embark immediately, though he had only one
legion of new levies, and not quite six hundred horse, he ordered
his tent to be pitched so near the sea-side that the waves lashed
the very foot of it. This he did with a view that none should think
he had time to delay, and that his men might be kept in readiness
at a day or an hour's warning. Though the wind at that time was contrary,
he nevertheless detained the soldiers and mariners on board, that
he might lose no opportunity of sailing; the rather, because the forces
of the enemy were announced by the inhabitants of the province, to
consist of innumberable cavalry not to be numbered; four legions headed
by Juba, together with a great body of light-armed troops; ten legions
under the command of Scipio; a hundred and twenty elephants, and fleets
in abundance. Yet he was not alarmed, nor lost his confident hopes
and spirits. Meantime the number of galleys and transports increased
daily; the new-levied legions flocked in to him from all parts; among
the rest the fifth, a veteran legion, and about two thousand horse.

Chapter 2 

Having got together six legions and about two thousand horse, he embarked
the legions as fast as they arrived, in the galleys, and the cavalry
in the transports. Then sending the greatest part of the fleet before,
with orders to sail for the island of Aponiana, not far from Lilybaeum;
he himself continued a little longer in Sicily, and exposed to public
sale some confiscated estates. Leaving all other affairs to the care
of Allienus the praetor, who then commanded in the island; and strictly
charging him to use the utmost expedition in embarking the remainder
of the troops; he set sail the sixth day before the calends of January,
and soon came up with the rest of the fleet. As the wind was favorable,
and afforded a quick passage, he arrived the fourth day within sight
of Africa, attended by a few galleys: for the transports, being mostly
dispersed and scattered by the winds, with the exception of a few
were driven different ways. Passing Clupea and Neapolis with the fleet,
he continued for some time to coast along the shore, leaving many
towns and castles behind him. 

Chapter 3 

After he came before Adrumetum, where the enemy had a garrison, commanded
by C. Considius, and where Cn. Piso appeared upon the shore toward
Clupea, with the cavalry of Adrumetum, and about three thousand Moors,
he stopped awhile, facing the port, till the rest of the fleet should
come up, and then landed his men, though their number at that time
did not exceed three thousand foot and a hundred and fifty horse.
There, encamping before the town, he continued quiet, without offering
any act of hostility, and restrained all from plunder. Meantime the
inhabitants manned the walls, and assembled in great numbers before
the gate, to defend themselves, their garrison within amounting to
two legions. Caesar, having ridden round the town, and thoroughly
examined its situation, returned to his camp. Some blamed his conduct
on this occasion, and charged him with a considerable oversight, in
not appointing a place of meeting to the pilots and captains of the
fleet, or delivering them sealed instructions, according to his usual
custom; which being opened at a certain time, might have directed
them to assemble at a specified place. But in this Caesar acted not
without design; for as he knew of no port in Africa that was clear
of the enemy's forces, and where the fleet might rendezvous in security,
he chose to rely entirely upon fortune, and land where occasion offered.

Chapter 4 

In the mean time, L. Plancus, one of Caesar's lieutenants, desired
leave to treat with Considius, and try, if possible, to bring him
to reason. Leave being granted accordingly, he wrote him a letter,
and sent it into the town by a captive. When the captive arrived,
and presented the letter, Considius, before he received it, demanded
whence it came, and being told from Caesar, the Roman general, answered,
"That he knew no general of the Roman forces but Scipio." Then, commending
the messenger to be immediately slain in his presence, he delivered
the letter, unread and unopened, to a trusty partisan, with orders
to carry it directly to Scipio. 

Chapter 5 

Caesar had now continued a day and a night before the town, without
receiving any answer from Considius; the rest of the forces were not
yet arrived; his cavalry was not considerable; he had not sufficient
troops with him to invest the place, and these were new levies: neither
did he think it advisable, upon his first landing, to expose the army
to wounds and fatigue; more especially, as the town was strongly fortified,
and extremely difficult of access, and a great body of horse was said
to be upon the point of arrival to succor the inhabitants; he therefore
thought it advisable not to remain and besiege the town, lest while
he pursued that design, the enemy's cavalry should come behind and
surround him. 

Chapter 6 

But as he was drawing off his men, the garrison made a sudden sally;
and the cavalry which had been sent by Juba to receive their pay,
happening just then to come up, they took possession of the camp Caesar
had left, and began to harass his rear. This being perceived, the
legionaries immediately halted; and the cavalry, though few in number,
boldly charged the vast multitude of the enemy. An incredible event
occurred, that less than thirty Gallic horse repulsed two thousand
Moors, and drove them into the town. Having thus repulsed the enemy
and compelled them to retire behind their walls, Caesar resumed his
intended march: but observing that they often repeated their sallies,
renewing the pursuit from time to time, and again fleeing when attacked
by the horse, he posted a few of the veteran cohorts which he had
with him, with part of the cavalry, in the rear, and so proceeded
slowly on his march. The further he advanced from the town, the less
eager were the Numidians to pursue. Meantime, deputies arrived from
the several towns and castles on the road, offering to furnish him
with corn, and to perform whatever he might command. Toward the evening
of that day, which was the calends of January, he fixed his camp at

Chapter 7 

Thence he removed and came before Leptis, a free city and governed
by its own laws. Here he was met by deputies from the town, who, in
the name of the inhabitants, offered their free submission. Whereupon,
placing centurions and a guard before the gates, to prevent the soldiers
from entering, or offering violence to any of the inhabitants, he
himself encamped toward the shore, not far distant from the town.
Hither by accident arrived some of the galleys and transports; by
whom he was informed that the rest of the fleet, uncertain what course
to pursue, had been steering for Utica. In the mean time Caesar could
not depart from the sea, nor seek the inland provinces, on account
of the error committed by the fleet. He likewise sent the cavalry
back to their ships, probably to hinder the country from being plundered,
and ordered fresh water to be carried to them on board. Meanwhile
the Moorish horse rose suddenly, Caesar's party not expecting it,
on the rowers who had been employed in carrying water, as they came
out of the ships, and wounded many with their darts and killed some.
For the manner of these barbarians is, to lie in ambush with their
horses among the valleys, and suddenly launch upon an enemy; they
seldom choosing to engage hand to hand in a plain. 

Chapter 8 

In the mean time, Caesar dispatched letters and messengers into Sardinia
and the neighboring provinces, with orders, as soon as they read the
letters, to send supplies of men, corn, and warlike stores; and having
unloaded part of the fleet, detached it, with Rabirius Posthumus,
into Sicily, to bring over the second embarkation. At the same time
he ordered out ten galleys, to get intelligence of the transports
that had missed their way, and to maintain the freedom of the sea.
He also ordered C. Sallustius Prispus, the praetor, at the head of
a squadron, to sail to Percina, then in the hands of the enemy, because
he heard there was great quantity of corn in that island: he gave
these orders and instructions in such a manner as to leave no room
for excuse or delay. Meanwhile, having informed himself, from the
deserters and natives, of the condition of Scipio and his followers;
and understanding that they were at the whole charge of maintaining
Juba's cavalry; he could not but pity the infatuation of men, who
thus chose to be tributaries to the king of Numidia, rather than securely
enjoy their fortunes at home with their fellow-citizens.

Chapter 9 

Caesar moved his camp on the third day before the nones of January;
and leaving six cohorts at Leptis, under the command of Saserna, returned
with the rest of the forces to Ruspina, whence he had come the day
before. Here he deposited the baggage of the army; and marching out
with a light body of troops to forage, ordered the inhabitants to
follow with their horses and carriages. Having by this means got together
a great quantity of corn, he came back to Ruspina. I think that he
acted with this intention, that by keeping possession of the maritime
cities, and providing them with garrisons, he might secure a retreat
for his fleet. 

Chapter 10 

Leaving therefore P. Saserna, the brother of him who commanded at
Leptis, to take charge of the town, with one legion, he orders all
the wood that could be found to be carried into the place; and set
out in person from Ruspina, with seven cohorts, part of the veteran
legions who had behaved so well in the fleet under Sulpicius and Vatinius;
and marching directly for the port, which lies at about two miles'
distance, embarked with them in the evening, without imparting his
intentions to the army, who were extremely inquisitive concerning
the general's design. His departure occasioned the utmost sadness
and consternation among the troops; for being few in number, mostly
new levies, and those not all suffered to land, they saw themselves
exposed, upon a foreign coast, to the mighty forces of a crafty nation,
supported by an innumerable cavalry. Nor had they any resource in
their present circumstances, or expectation of safety in their own
conduct; but derived all their hope from the alacrity, vigor, and
wonderful cheerfulness that appeared in their general's countenance;
for he was of an intrepid spirit, and behaved with undaunted resolution
and confidence. On his conduct, therefore, they entirely relied, and
hoped to a man, that by his skill and talents, all difficulties would
vanish before them. 

Chapter 11 

Caesar, having continued the whole night on board, prepared to set
sail about day-break; when, all on a sudden, the part of the fleet
that had caused so much anxiety, appeared unexpectedly in view. Wherefore,
ordering his men to quit their ships immediately, and receive the
rest of the troops in arms upon the shore, he made the new fleet enter
the port with the utmost diligence; and landing all the forces, horse
and foot, returned again to Ruspina. Here he established his camp;
and taking with him thirty cohorts, without baggage, advanced into
the country to forage. Thus was Caesar's purpose at length discovered:
that he meant, unknown to the enemy, to have sailed to the assistance
of the transports that had missed their way, lest they should unexpectedly
fall in with the African fleet. And he did not wish his own soldiers
who were left behind in garrison to know this, lest they should be
intimidated by the smallness of their numbers, and the multitude of
the enemy. 

Chapter 12 

Caesar had not marched above three miles from his camp, when he was
informed by his scouts, and some advanced parties of horse, that the
enemy's forces were in view. As soon as this announcement was made,
a great cloud of dust began to appear. Upon this intelligence, Caesar
ordered all his horse, of which he had at that time but a very small
number, to advance, as likewise his archers, only a few of whom had
followed him from the camp; and the legions to march quietly after
him in order of battle; while he went forward at the head of a small
party. Soon after, having discovered the enemy at some distance, he
commanded the soldiers to repair to their arms, and prepare for battle.
Their number in all did not exceed thirty cohorts, with four hundred
horse, and one hundred and fifty archers. 

Chapter 13 

Meanwhile the enemy, under the command of Labienus, and the two Pacidii,
drew up, with a very large front, consisting not so much of foot as
of horse, whom they intermixed with light-armed Numidians and archers;
forming themselves in such close order, that Caesar's army, at a distance,
mistook them all for infantry; and strengthening their right and left
with many squadrons of horse. Caesar drew up his army in a single
line, being obliged to do so by the smallness of his numbers; covering
his front with his archers, and placing his cavalry on the right and
left wings, with particular instructions not to suffer themselves
to be surrounded by the enemy's numerous horse; for he imagined that
he would have to fight only with infantry. 

Chapter 14 

As both sides stood in expectation of the signal, and Caesar would
not stir from his post, as he saw that with such few troops against
so great a force he must depend more on stratagem than strength, on
a sudden the enemy's horse began to extend themselves, and move in
a lateral direction, so as to encompass the hills and weaken Caesar's
horse, and at the same time to surround them. The latter could scarcely
keep their ground against their numbers. Meanwhile, both the main
bodies advancing to engage, the enemy's cavalry, intermixed with some
light-armed Numidians, suddenly sprang forward, from their crowded
troops, and attacked the legions with a shower of darts. Our men,
preparing to return the charge, their horse retreated a little, while
the foot continued to maintain their ground, till the others, having
rallied, came on again, with fresh vigor, to sustain them.

Chapter 15 

Caesar perceived that his ranks were in danger of being broken by
this new way of fighting, for our foot, in pursuing the enemy's horse,
having advanced a considerable way beyond their colors, were wounded
in the flank by the nearest Numidian darts, while the enemy's horse
easily escaped our infantry's javelins by flight; he therefore gave
express orders that no soldier should advance above four feet beyond
the ensigns. Meanwhile, Labienus's cavalry, confiding in their numbers
endeavored to surround those of Caesar: who being few in number, and
overpowered by the multitude of the enemy, were forced to give ground
a little, their horses being much wounded. The enemy pressed on more
and more; so that in an instant, the legions, being surrounded on
all sides by the enemy's cavalry, were obliged to form themselves
into a circle, and fight, as if inclosed with barriers. 

Chapter 16 

Labienus, with his head uncovered, advanced on horseback to the front
of the battle, sometimes encouraging his own men, sometimes addressing
Caesar's legions thus: "So ho! you raw soldiers there!" says he, "why
so fierce? Has he infatuated you too with his words? Truly he has
brought you into a fine condition! I pity you sincerely." Upon this,
one of the soldiers said: "I am none of your raw warriors, Labienus,
but a veteran of the tenth legion." " Where's your standard?" replied
Labienus. " I'll soon make you sensible who I am," answered the soldier.
Then pulling off his helmet, to discover himself, he threw a javelin,
with all his strength at Labienus, which wounding his horse severely
in the breast - "Know, Labienus," says he, "that this dart was thrown
by a soldier of the tenth legion." However, the whole army was not
a little daunted, especially the new levies; and began to cast their
eyes upon Caesar, minding nothing, for the present, but to defend
themselves from the enemy's darts. 

Chapter 17 

Caesar meanwhile, perceiving the enemy's design, endeavored to extend
his line of battle, as much as possible, directing the cohorts to
face about alternately to the right and left. By this means, he broke
the enemy's circle with his right and left wings; and attacking one
part of them, thus separated from the other, with his horse and foot,
at last put them to flight. He pursued them but a little way, fearing
an ambuscade, and returned again to his own men. The same was done
by the other division of Caesar's horse and foot, so that the enemy
being driven back, and severely wounded on all sides, he retreated
toward his camp, in order of battle. 

Chapter 18 

Meantime M. Petreius, and Cn. Piso, with eleven hundred select Numidian
horse, and a considerable body of foot, arrived to the assistance
of the enemy; who, recovering from their terror, upon this reinforcement,
and again resuming courage, fell upon the rear of the legions, as
they retreated, and endeavored to hinder them from reaching their
camp. Caesar, perceiving this, ordered his men to wheel about, and
renew the battle in the middle of the plain. As the enemy still pursued
their former plan, and avoided a closing engagement, and the horses
of Caesar's cavalry had not yet recovered the fatigue of their late
voyage, and were besides weakened with thirst, weariness, wounds,
and of course unfit for a vigorous and long pursuit, which even the
time of the day would not allow, he ordered both horse and foot to
fall at once briskly upon the enemy, and not slacken the pursuit till
they had driven them quite beyond the furthest hills, and taken possession
of them themselves. Accordingly, upon a signal being given, when the
enemy were throwing their javelins in a faint and careless manner,
he suddenly charged them with his horse and foot; who in a moment
driving them from the field, and over the adjoining hill, kept possession
of that post for some time, and then retired slowly, in order of battle,
to their camp. The enemy, who, in this last attack, had been very
roughly handled, then at length retreated to their fortifications.

Chapter 19 

Meanwhile the action being over, a great number of deserters, of all
kinds, flocked to Caesar's camp, besides multitudes of horse and foot
that were made prisoners. From them we learned that it was the design
of the enemy to have astonished our raw troops, with their new and
uncommon manner of fighting; and after surrounding them with their
cavalry, to have cut them to pieces, as they had done Curio; and that
they had marched against us expressly with that intention. Labienus
had even said, in the council of war, that he would lead such a numerous
body of auxiliaries against his adversaries, as should fatigue us
with the very slaughter, and defeat us even in the bosom of victory;
for he relied more on the number than the valor of his troops. He
had heard of the mutiny of the veteran legions at Rome, and their
refusal to go into Africa; and was likewise well assured of the fidelity
of his troops, who had served three years under him in Africa. He
had a great number of Numidian cavalry and light-armed troops, besides
the Gallic and German horse, whom he had drawn together out of the
remains of Pompey's army, and carried over with him from Brundusium:
he had likewise the freed men raised in the country, and trained to
use bridled horses; and also the immense number of Juba's forces,
his hundred and twenty elephants, his innumerable cavalry and legionaries,
amounting to above twelve thousand. Emboldened by the hope such mighty
forces raised in him, on the day before the nones of January, three
days after Caesar's arrival, he came against him, with sixteen hundred
Gallic and German horse, nine hundred under Petreius, eight thousand
Numidians, four times that number of light-armed foot, with a multitude
of archers and slingers. The battle lasted from the fifth hour till
sunset, during which time Petreius, receiving a dangerous wound, was
obliged to quit the field. 

Chapter 20 

Meantime Caesar fortified his camp with much greater care, reinforced
the guards, and threw up two intrenchments; one from Ruspina quite
to the sea, the other from his camp to the sea likewise, to secure
the communication, and receive supplies without danger. He landed
a great number darts and military engines, armed part of the mariners,
Gauls, Rhodians, and others, that after the example of the enemy he
might have a number of light-armed troops to intermix with his cavalry.
He likewise strengthened his army with a great number of Syrian and
Iturean archers whom he drew from the fleet into his camp: for he
understood that within three days Scipio was expected to unite his
forces to Labienus and Petreius, and his army was said to consist
of eight legions and three thousand horse. At the same time he established
workshops, made a great number of darts and arrows, provided himself
with leaden bullets and palisades, wrote to Sicily for hurdles and
wood to make rams, because he had none in Africa, and likewise gave
orders for sending corn; for the harvest in that country was like
to be inconsiderable, the enemy having taken all the laborers into
their service the year before, and stored up the grain in a few fortified
towns, after demolishing the rest, forcing the inhabitants into the
garrisoned places, and exhausting the whole country. 

Chapter 21 

In this necessity, by paying court to private individuals, he obtained
a small supply, and husbanded it with care. In the mean time he went
round the works in person daily, and kept about four cohorts constantly
on duty, on account of the multitude of the enemy. Labienus sent his
sick and wounded, of which the number was very considerable, in wagons
to Adrumetum. Meanwhile Caesar's transports, unacquainted with the
coast, or where their general had landed wandered up and down in great
uncertainty; and being, attacked, one after another, by the enemy's
coasters, were, for the most part, either taken or burned. Caesar,
being informed of this, stationed his fleet along the coast and islands
for the security of his convoys. 

Chapter 22 

Meanwhile M. Cato, who commanded in Utica, never ceased urging and
exhorting young Pompey, in words to this effect: "Your father, when
he was at your age, and observed the commonwealth oppressed by wicked
and daring men, and the party of order either slain or driven into
banishment from their country and relations, incited by the greatness
of his mind and the love of glory, though then very young, and only
a private man, had yet the courage to rally the remains of his father's
army, and assert the freedom of Italy and Rome, which was almost crushed
forever. He also recovered Sicily, Africa, Numidia, Mauritania, with
amazing dispatch, and by that means gained an illustrious and extensive
reputation among all nations, and triumphed while very young and only
a Roman knight. Nor did he enter upon the administration of public
affairs, distinguished by the shining exploits of his father, or the
fame and reputation of his ancestors, or the honors and dignities
of the state. Will you, on the contrary, possessed of these honors,
and the reputation acquired by your father, sufficiently distinguished
by your own industry and greatness of mind, not bestir yourself, join
your father's friends, and give the earnestly required assistance
to yourself, the republic, and every man of worth?" 

Chapter 23 

The youth, roused by the remonstrances of that grave and worthy senator,
got together about thirty sail, of all sorts, of which some few were
ships of war, and sailing from Utica to Mauritania, invaded the kingdom
of Bogud. And leaving his baggage behind him, with an army of two
thousand men, partly freedmen, partly slaves, some armed, some not,
approached the town of Ascurum, in which the king had a garrison.
On the arrival of Pompey, the inhabitants suffered him to advance
to the very walls and gates; when, suddenly sallying out, they drove
back his troops in confusion and dismay to the sea and their ships.
This ill-success determined him to leave that coast, nor did he afterward
land in any place, but steered directly for the Balearean Isles.

Chapter 24 

Meantime Scipio, leaving a strong garrison at Utica, began his march,
with the forces we have described above, and encamped first at Adrumetum;
and then, after a stay of a few days, setting out in the night, he
joined Petreius and Labienus, lodging all the forces in one camp,
about three miles distant from Caesar's. Their cavalry made continual
excursions to our very works, and intercepted those who ventured too
far in quest of wood or water, and obliged us to keep within our intrenchments.
This soon occasioned a great scarcity of provision among Caesar's
men, because no supplies had yet arrived from Sicily and Sardinia.
The season, too, was dangerous for navigation, and he did not possess
above six miles in each direction, in Africa, and was moreover greatly
distressed for want of forage. The veteran soldiers and cavalry, who
had been engaged in many wars both by sea and land, and often struggled
with wants and misfortunes of this kind, gathering sea-weed, and washing
it in fresh water, by that means subsisted their horses and cattle.

Chapter 25 

While things were in this situation, king Juba, being informed of
Caesar's difficulties, and the few troops he had with him, resolved
not to allow him time to remedy his wants or increase his forces.
Accordingly he left his kingdom, at the head of a large body of horse
and foot, and marched to join his allies. Meantime P. Sitius, and
king Bogud, having intelligence of Juba's march, joined their forces,
entered Numidia, and laying siege to Cirta, the most opulent city
in the county, carried it in a few days, with two others belonging
to the Getulians. They had offered the inhabitants leave to depart
in safety, if they would peaceably deliver up the town; but these
conditions being rejected, they were taken by storm, and the citizens
all put to the sword. They continued to advance, and incessantly harassed
the cities and country; of which Juba having intelligence, though
he was upon the point of joining Scipio and the other chiefs, determined
that it was better to march to the relief of his own kingdom, than
run the hazard of being driven from it while he was assisting others,
and, perhaps, after all, miscarry too in his designs against Caesar.
He therefore retired, with his troops, leaving only thirty elephants
behind him, and marched to the relief of his own cities and territories.

Chapter 26 

Meanwhile Caesar, as there was a doubt in the province concerning
his arrival, and no one believed that he had come in person, but that
some of his lieutenants had come over with the forces lately sent,
dispatched letters to all the several states, to inform them of his
presence. Upon this, many persons of rank fled to his camp, complaining
of the barbarity and cruelty of the enemy. Caesar deeply touched by
their tears and complaints, although before he had remained inactive,
resolved to take the field as soon as the weather would permit, and
he could draw his troops together. He immediately dispatched letters
into Sicily, to Allienus and Rabirius Posthumus the praetors [to tell
them] that without delay or excuse, either of the winter or the winds,
they must send over the rest of the troops, to save Africa from utter
ruin; because, without some speedy remedy, not a single house would
be left standing, nor any thing escape the fury and ravages of the
enemy. And he himself was so anxious and impatient, that from the
day the letters were sent, he complained without ceasing of the delay
of the fleet, and had his eyes night and day turned toward the sea.
Nor was it wonderful; for he saw the villages burned, the country
laid waste, the cattle destroyed, the towns plundered, the principal
citizens either slain or put in chains, and their children dragged
into servitude under the name of hostages; nor could he, amid all
this scene of misery, afford any relief to those who implored his
protection, on account of the small number of his forces. In the mean
time he kept the soldiers incessantly at work upon the intrenchments,
built forts and redoubts, and carried on his lines quite to the sea.

Chapter 27 

Meanwhile Scipio made use of the following contrivance for training
and disciplining his elephants. He drew up two parties in order of
battle; one of slingers, who were to act as enemies, and discharge
small stones against the elephants: and fronting them, the elephants
themselves, in one line, and his whole army behind him in battle-array;
that when the enemy, by their discharge of stones, had frightened
the elephants, and forced them to turn upon their own men, they might
again be made to face the enemy, by the volleys of stones from the
army behind them. The work however, went on but slowly, because these
animals, after many years' training, are dangerous to both parties
when brought into the field. 

Chapter 28 

While the two generals were thus employed near Ruspina, C. Virgilius,
a man of praetorian rank, who commanded in Thapsus, a maritime city,
observing some of Caesar's transports that had missed their way, uncertain
where Caesar had landed or held his camp; and thinking that a fair
opportunity offered of destroying them, manned a galley that was in
the port with soldiers and archers, and joining with it a few armed
barks, began to pursue Caesar's ships. Though he was repulsed on several
occasions he still pursued his design, and at last fell in with one,
on board of which were two young Spaniards, of the name of Titius,
who were tribunes of the fifth legion, and whose father had been made
a senator by Caesar. There was with them a centurion of the same legion,
T. Salienus by name, who had invested the house of M. Messala, Caesar's
lieutenant, at Messana, and made use of very seditious language; nay,
had even seized the money and ornaments destined for Caesar's triumph,
and for that reason dreaded his resentment. He, conscious of his demerits,
persuaded the young men to surrender themselves to Virgilius, by whom
they were sent under a strong guard to Scipio, and three days after
put to death. It is said, that the elder Titius begged of the centurions
who were charged with the execution, that he might be first put to
death; which being easily granted, they both suffered according to
their sentence. 

Chapter 29 

The cavalry that mounted guard in the two camps were continually skirmishing
with one another. Sometimes too the German and Gallic cavalry of Labienus
entered into discourse with those of Caesar, after promising not to
injure one another. Meantime Labienus, with a party of horse, endeavored
to surprise the town of Leptis, which Saserna guarded with three cohorts;
but was easily repulsed, because the town was strongly fortified,
and well provided with warlike engines; he however renewed the attempt
several times. One day, as a strong squadron of the enemy had posted
themselves before the gate, their officer being slain by an arrow
discharged from a cross-bow, and pinned to his own shield, the rest
were terrified and took to flight; by which means the town was delivered
from any further attempts. 

Chapter 30 

At the same time Scipio daily drew up his troops in order of battle,
about three hundred paces from his camp; and after continuing in arms
the greatest part of the day, retreated again to his camp in the evening.
This he did several times, no one mean while offering to stir out
of Caesar's camp, or approach his forces; which forbearance and tranquillity
gave him such a contempt of Caesar and his army, that drawing out
all his forces, and his thirty elephants, with towers on their backs,
and extending his horse and foot as wide as possible, he approached
quite up to Caesar's intrenchments. 

Chapter 31 

Upon perceiving this, Caesar, quietly, and without noise or confusion,
recalled to his camp all that were gone out either in quest of forage,
wood, or to work upon the fortifications: he likewise ordered the
cavalry that were upon guard not to quit their post until the enemy
were within reach of dart; and if they then persisted in advancing,
to retire in good order within the intrenchments. He ordered the rest
of the cavalry to be ready and armed, each in his own place. These
orders were not given by himself in person, or after viewing the disposition
of the enemy from the rampart; but such was his consummate knowledge
of the art of war, that he gave all the necessary directions by his
officers, he himself sitting in his tent, and informing himself of
the motions of the enemy by his scouts. He very well knew, that, whatever
confidence the enemy might have in their numbers, they would yet never
dare to attack the camp of a general who had so often repulsed, terrified,
and put them to flight; who had frequently pardoned and granted them
their lives; and whose very name had weight and authority enough to
intimidate their army. He was besides well intrenched with a high
rampart and deep ditch, the approaches to which were rendered so difficult
by the sharp spikes which he had disposed in a very skillful manner,
that they were even sufficient of themselves to keep off the enemy.
He had also a large supply of cross-bows, engines, and all sorts of
weapons necessary for a vigorous defense, which he had prepared on
account of the fewness of his troops, and the inexperience of his
new levies. It was not owing to being influenced by the fear of the
enemy or their numerical strength, that he allowed himself to appear
daunted in their estimation. And it was not owing to his having any
doubts of gaining the victory that he did not lead his troops to action,
although they were raw and few, but he thought that it was a matter
of great importance, what sort the victory should be: for he thought
that it would disgrace him, if after so many noble exploits, and defeating
such powerful armies, and after gaining so many glorious victories,
he should appear to have gained a bloody victory over the remnants
who had rallied after their flight. He determined, in consequence
of this, to endure the pride and exultation of his enemies, until
some portion of his veteran legion should arrive in the second embarkation.

Chapter 32 

Scipio, after a short stay before the intrenchments, as if in contempt
of Caesar, withdrew slowly to his camp: and having called the soldiers
together, enlarged upon the terror and despair of the enemy, when
encouraging his men, he assured them of a complete victory in a short
time. Caesar made his soldiers again return to the works, and under
pretense of fortifying his camp, inured the new levies to labor and
fatigue. Meantime the Numidians and Getulians deserted daily from
Scipio's camp. Part returned home; part came over to Caesar, because
they understood he was related to C. Marius, from whom their ancestors
had received considerable favors. Of these he selected some of distinguished
rank, and sent them home, with letters to their countrymen, exhorting
them to levy troops for their own defense, and not to listen to the
suggestions of his enemies. 

Chapter 33 

While these things were passing near Ruspina, deputies from Acilla,
a free town, and all the neighboring towns, arrived in Caesar's camp,
and promised "to be ready to execute Caesar's commands, and to do
so withal, and that they only begged and requested of him to give
them garrisons, that they might do so in safety and without danger
to themselves, that they would furnish them with corn and whatever
supplies they had, to secure the common safety. Caesar readily complied
with their demands, and having assigned a garrison, sent C. Messius,
who had been aedile, to command in Acilla. Upon intelligence of this,
Considius Longus, who was at Adrumetum with two legions and seven
hundred horse, leaving a garrison in that city, hastened to Acilla
at the head of eight cohorts: but Messius, having accomplished his
march with great expedition, arrived there before him. When Considius,
therefore, approached, and found Caesar's garrison in possession of
the town, not daring to make any attempt, he returned again to Adrumetum.
But some days after, Labienus having sent him a reinforcement of horse,
he began to besiege the town. 

Chapter 34 

Much about the same time, C. Sallustius Crispus, who, as we have seen,
had been sent a few days before to Cercina with a fleet, arrived in
that island. Upon his arrival, C. Decimus the quaestor, who, with
a strong party of his own domestics, had charge of the magazines erected
there, went on board a small vessel and fled. Sallustius meanwhile
was well received by the Cercinates, and finding great store of corn
in the island, loaded all the ships then in the port, whose number
was very considerable, and dispatched them to Caesar's camp. At the
same time Allienus, the proconsul, put on board of the transports
at Lilybaeum the thirteenth and fourteenth legions, with eight hundred
Gallic horse and a thousand archers and slingers, and sent the second
embarkation to Africa, to Caesar. This fleet meeting with a favorable
wind, arrived in four days at Ruspina, where Caesar had his camp.
Thus he experienced a double pleasure on this occasion, receiving
at one and the same time, both a supply of provisions and a reinforcement
of troops, which animated the soldiers, and delivered them from the
apprehensions of want. Having landed the legions and cavalry, he allowed
them some time to recover from the fatigue and sickness of their voyage,
and then distributed them into the forts, and along the works.

Chapter 35 

Scipio and the other generals were greatly surprised at this conduct,
and could not conceive why Caesar, who had always been forward and
active in war, should all of a sudden change his measures; which they
therefore suspected must proceed from some very powerful reasons.
Uneasy and disturbed to see him so patient, they made choice of two
Getulians, on whose fidelity they thought they could rely; and promising
them great rewards, sent them, under the name of deserters, to get
intelligence of Caesar's designs. When they were brought before him,
they begged they might have leave to speak without personal danger,
which being granted, "It is now a long time, great general," said
they, "since many of us Getulians, clients of C. Marius, and almost
all Roman citizens of the fourth and sixth legions, have wished for
an opportunity to come over to you; but have hitherto been prevented
by the guards of Numidian horse, from doing it without great risk.
Now we gladly embrace the occasion, being sent by Scipio under the
name of deserters, to discover what ditches and traps you have prepared
for his elephants, how you intended to oppose these animals, and what
dispositions you are making for battle." They were praised by Caesar,
and liberally rewarded, and sent to the other deserters. We had soon
a proof of the truth of what they had advanced; for the next day a
great many soldiers of these legions, mentioned by the Getulians,
deserted to Caesar's camp. 

Chapter 36 

While affairs were in this posture at Ruspina, M. Cato, who commanded
in Utica, was daily enlisting freed-men, Africans, slaves, and all
that were of age to bear arms, and sending them without intermission
to Scipio's camp. Meanwhile deputies from the town of Tisdra came
to Caesar to inform him, that some Italian merchants had brought three
hundred thousand bushels of corn into that city, and to demand a garrison
as well for their own defense as to secure the corn. Caesar thanked
the deputies, promised to send the garrison they desired, and having
encouraged them, sent them back to their fellow-citizens. Meantime
P. Sitius entered Numidia with his troops, and took by storm a castle
situated on a mountain, where Juba had laid up a great quantity of
provisions, and other things necessary for carrying on the war.

Chapter 37 

Caesar, having increased his forces with two veteran legions, and
all the cavalry and light-armed troops that had arrived in the second
embarkation, detached six transports to Lilybaeum, to bring over the
rest of the army. He himself on the sixth day before the calends of
February, ordering the scouts and lictors to attend him at six in
the evening, drew out all the legions at midnight, and directed his
march toward Ruspina, where he had a garrison, and which had first
declared in his favor, no one knowing or having the least suspicion
of his design. Thence he continued his route, by the left of the camp,
along the sea, and passed a little declivity, which opened into a
fine plain, extending fifteen miles, and bordering upon a chain of
mountains of moderate height, that formed a kind of theater. In this
ridge were some hills that rose higher than the rest, on which forts
and watchtowers had formerly been erected, and at the furthest of
which, Scipio's guards and out-posts were stationed. 

Chapter 38 

After Caesar gained the ridge, which I have just mentioned, and began
to raise redoubts upon the several eminences (which he executed in
less than half an hour), and when he was not very far from the last,
which bordered on the enemy's camp, and where, as we have said, Scipio
had his out-guard of Numidians, he stopped a moment; and having taken
a view of the ground, and posted his cavalry in the most commodious
situation, he ordered the legions to throw up an intrenchment along
the middle of the ridge, from the place at which he was arrived to
that whence he set out. When Scipio and Labienus observed this, they
drew all their cavalry out of the camp, formed them in order of battle,
and advancing about a mile, posted their infantry by way of a second
line, somewhat less than half a mile from their camp. 

Chapter 39 

Caesar was unmoved by the appearance of the enemy's forces, and encouraged
his men to go on with the work. But when he perceived that they were
within fifteen hundred paces of the intrenchment, and saw that the
enemy were coming nearer to interrupt and disturb the soldiers and
oblige him to draw off the legions from the work, he ordered a squadron
of Spanish cavalry, supported by some light-armed infantry, to attack
the Numidian guard upon the nearest eminence, and drive them from
that post. They accordingly, advancing rapidly, attacked the Numidian
cavalry: they took some of them alive, severely wounded several in
their flight, and made themselves masters of the place. This being
observed by Labienus, he wheeled off almost the whole right wing of
the horse, that he might the more effectually succor the fugitives.
Caesar waited till he was at a considerable distance from his own
men, and then detached his left wing to intercept the enemy.

Chapter 40 

In the plain where this happened was a large villa, with four turrets,
which prevented Labienus from seeing that he was intercepted by Caesar's
cavalry. He had therefore no apprehension of the approach of Caesar's
horse till he found himself charged in the rear; which struck such
a sudden terror into the Numidian cavalry that they immediately betook
themselves to flight. The Gauls and Germans who stood their ground,
being surrounded on all sides, were entirely cut off. This being perceived
by Scipio's legions, who were drawn up in order of battle before the
camp, they fled in the utmost terror and confusion. Scipio and his
forces being driven from the plain and the hills, Caesar sounded a
retreat, and ordered all the cavalry to retire behind the works. When
the field was cleared, he could not forbear admiring the huge bodies
of the Gauls and Germans, who had been partly induced by the authority
of Labienus to follow him out of Gaul, and partly drawn over by promises
and rewards. Some being made prisoners in the battle with Curio, and
having their lives granted them, continued faithful out of gratitude.
Their bodies, of surprising symmetry and size, lay scattered all over
the plain. 

Chapter 41 

Next day, Caesar drew all his forces together, and formed them in
order of battle upon the plain. Scipio, discouraged by so unexpected
a check, and the number of his wounded and slain, kept within his
lines. Caesar, with his army in battle array, marched along the roots
of the hills, and gradually approached his trenches. Caesar's legions
were, by this time, not more than a mile from Uzita, a town possessed
by Scipio, when the latter, fearing lest he should lose the town,
whence he procured water and other conveniences for his army, resolved
therefore to preserve it, at all hazards, and brought forth his whole
army, and drew them up in four lines, forming the first of cavalry,
supported by elephants with castles on their backs. Caesar believing
that Scipio approached with the intention of giving battle, continued
where he was posted, not far from the town. Scipio meanwhile, having
the town in the center of his front, extended his two wings, where
were his elephants, in full view of our army. 

Chapter 42 

When Caesar had waited till sunset, without finding that Scipio stirred
from his post, who seemed rather disposed to defend himself by his
advantageous situation, than hazard a battle in the open field, he
did not think proper to advance further that day, because the enemy
had a strong garrison of Numidians in the town, which besides covered
the center of their front: and he foresaw great difficulty in forming,
at the same time, an attack upon the town, and opposing their right
and left, with the advantage of the ground; especially as the soldiers
had continued under arms and fasted since morning. Having therefore
led back his troops to their camp, he resolved next day to extend
his lines nearer the town. 

Chapter 43 

Meantime Considius, who was besieging eight mercenary cohorts of Numidians
and Getulians in Acilla, where P. Messius commanded, after continuing
long before the place, and seeing all his works burned and destroyed
by the enemy, upon the report of the late battle of the cavalry, set
fire to is corn, destroyed his wine, oil, and other stores, which
were necessary for the maintenance of his army; and abandoning the
siege of Acilla, divided his forces with Scipio, and retired through
the kingdom of Juba, to Adrumetum. 

Chapter 44 

Meanwhile one of the transports, belonging to the second embarkation,
which Allienus had sent from Sicily, in which were Q. Cominius, and
L. Ticida, a Roman knight, being separated from the rest of the fleet,
in a storm, and driven to Thapsus, was taken by Virgilius, and all
the persons on board sent to Scipio. A three-banked galley likewise,
belonging to the same fleet, being forced by the winds to Aegimurum,
was intercepted by the squadron under Varus and M. Octavius. In this
vessel were some veteran soldiers, with a centurion, and a few new
levies, whom Varus treated without insult, and sent under a guard
to Scipio. When they came into his presence, and appeared before his
tribunal: "I am satisfied," said he, "it is not by your own inclination,
but at the instigation of your wicked general, that you impiously
wage war on your fellow-citizens, and every man of worth. If, therefore,
now that fortune has put you in our power, you will take this opportunity
to unite with the good citizens, in the defense of the commonwealth,
I am determined to give you life and money: therefore speak openly
your sentiments." 

Chapter 45 

Scipio having ended his speech, and expecting a thankful return to
so gracious an offer, permitted them to reply; one of their number,
a centurion of the fourteenth legion, thus addressed him: "Scipio,"
says he ("for I can not give you the appellation of general), I return
you my hearty thanks for the good treatment you are willing to show
to prisoners of war; and perhaps I might accept of your kindness were
it not to be purchased at the expense of a horrible crime. What! shall
I carry arms, and fight against Caesar, my general, under whom I have
served as centurion; and against his victorious army, to whose renown
I have for more than thirty-six years endeavored to contribute by
my valor? It is what I will never do, and even advise you not to push
the war any further. You know not what troops you have to deal with,
nor the difference betwixt them and yours: of which, if you please,
I will give you an indisputable instance. Do you pick out the best
cohort you have in your army, and give me only ten of my comrades,
who are now your prisoners, to engage them: you shall see by the success,
what you are to expect from your soldiers." 

Chapter 46 

When the centurion had courageously made this reply, Scipio, incensed
at his boldness, and resenting the affront, made a sign to some of
his officers to kill him on the spot, which was immediately put in
execution. At the same time, ordering the other veteran soldiers to
be separated from the new levies, "Carry away." said he, "these men,
contaminated by the pollution of crime, and pampered with the blood
of their fellow-citizens." Accordingly they were conducted without
the rampart, and cruelly massacred. The new-raised soldiers were distributed
among his legions, and Cominius and Ticida forbade to appear in his
presence. Caesar, concerned for his misfortune, broke, with ignominy,
the officers whose instructions were to secure the coast, and advance
to a certain distance into the main sea, to protect and facilitate
the approach of the transports, but who had neglected their duty on
that important station. 

Chapter 47 

About this time a most incredible accident befell Caesar's army; for
the Pleiades being set, about the second watch of the night, a terrible
storm arose, attended by hail of an uncommon size. But what contributed
to render this misfortune the greater was, that Caesar had not, like
other generals, put his troops into winter quarters, but was every
three or four days changing his camp, to gain ground on the enemy;
which keeping the soldiers continually employed they were utterly
unprovided with any conveniences to protect them from the inclemency
of the weather. Besides, he had brought over his army from Sicily
with such strictness, that neither officer nor soldier had been permitted
to take their equipages or utensils with them, nor so much as a vessel
or a single slave; and so far had they been from acquiring or providing
themselves with any thing in Africa, that, on account of the great
scarcity of provisions, they had even consumed their former stores.
Impoverished by these accidents, very few of them had tents; the rest
had made themselves a kind of covering, either by spreading their
clothes, or with mats and rushes. But these being soon penetrated
by the storm and hail, the soldiers had no resource left, but wandered
up and down the camp, covering their heads with their bucklers to
shelter them from the violence of the weather. In a short time the
whole camp was under water, the fires extinguished, and all their
provisions washed away or spoiled. The same night the shafts of the
javelins belonging to the fifth legion, of their own accord, took

Chapter 48 

In the mean time, king Juba, having been informed of the cavalry actions
with Scipio, and being earnestly solicited, by letters from that general,
to come to his assistance, left Sabura at home with part of the army,
to carry on the war against Sitius, and that he might add the weight
of his authority to free Scipio's troops from the dread they had of
Caesar, began his march, with three legions, eight hundred regular
horse, a body of Numidian cavalry, great numbers of light-armed infantry,
and thirty elephants. When he arrived he lodged himself, with those
forces which I have described, in a separate camp, at no great distance
from that of Scipio. (Great alarm had prevailed for some time previously
in Caesar's camp, and the report of his approach had increased and
produced a general suspense and expectation among the troops. But
his arrival, and the appearance of his camp, soon dispelled all these
apprehensions; and they despised the king of Mauritania, now that
he was present, as much as they had feared him when at a distance.)
After this junction, any one might easily perceive that Scipio's courage
and confidence were increased by the arrival of the king. For next
day, drawing out all his own and the royal forces, with sixty elephants,
he ranged them, in order of battle, with great ostentation advancing
a little beyond his intrenchments, and, after a short stay, retreated
to his camp. 

Chapter 49 

Caesar, knowing that Scipio had received all the supplies he expected,
and judging he would no longer decline coming to an engagement, began
to advance along the ridge with his forces, extend his lines, secure
them with redoubts, and possess himself of the eminences between him
and Scipio. The enemy, confiding in their numbers, seized a neighboring
hill, and thereby prevented the progress of our works. Labienus had
formed the design of securing this post, and as it lay nearest his
quarters, soon got thither. 

Chapter 50 

There was a broad and deep valley, of rugged descent, broken with
caves, which Caesar had to pass before he could come to the hill which
he wished to occupy, and beyond which was a thick grove of old olives.
Labienus, perceiving that Caesar must march this way, and having a
perfect knowledge of the country, placed himself in ambush, with the
light-armed foot and part of the cavalry. At the same time he disposed
some horse behind the hills, that when he should fall unexpectedly
upon Caesar's foot, they might suddenly advance from behind the mountain.
And thus Caesar and his army being attacked in front and rear, surrounded
with danger on all sides, and unable either to retreat or advance,
would, he imagined, fall an easy prey to his victorious troops. Caesar,
who had no suspicion of the ambuscade, sent his cavalry before; and
arriving at the place, Labienus's men, either forgetting or neglecting
the orders of their general, or fearing to be trampled to death in
the ditch by our cavalry, began to issue in small parties from the
rock, and ascend the hill. Caesar's horse pursuing them, slew some,
and took others prisoners; then making toward the hill drove thence
Labienus's detachment and immediately took possession. Labienus, with
a small party of horse, escaped with great difficulty by flight.

Chapter 51 

The cavalry having thus cleared the mountain, Caesar resolved to intrench
himself there, and distributed the work to the legions. He then ordered
two lines of communication to be drawn from the greater camp, across
the plain on the side of Uzita, which stood between him and the enemy,
and was garrisoned by a detachment of Scipio's army, and place them
in such a manner as to meet at the right and left angles of the town.
His design in this work was, that when he approached the town with
his troops, and began to attack it, these lines might secure his flanks,
and hinder the enemy's horse from surrounding him, and compelling
him to abandon the siege. It likewise gave his men more frequent opportunities
of conversing with the enemy, and facilitated the means of desertion
to such as favored his cause; many of whom had already come over,
though not without great danger to themselves. He wanted also, by
drawing nearer the enemy, to see if they really intended to come to
an action, and in addition to all these reasons, that the place itself
being very low, he might there sink some wells; whereas before he
had a long and troublesome way to send for water. While the legions
were employed in these works, part of the army stood ready drawn up
before the trenches, and had frequent skirmishes with the Numidian
horse and light-armed foot 

Chapter 52 

A little before evening, when Caesar was drawing off his legions from
the works, Juba, Scipio, and Labienus, at the head of all their horse
and light-armed foot, fell furiously upon his cavalry; who, being
overwhelmed by the sudden and general attack of so great a multitude,
were forced to give ground a little. But the event was very different
from what the enemy expected; for Caesar, leading back his legions
to the assistance of his cavalry, they immediately rallied, turned
upon the Numidians, and charging them vigorously while they were dispersed
and disordered with the pursuit, drove them with great loss to the
king's camp, and slew several of them. And had not night intervened,
and the dust raised by the wind obstructed the prospect, Juba and
Labienus would both have fallen into Caesar's hands, and their whole
cavalry and light-armed infantry have been cut off. Meanwhile Scipio's
men, of the fourth and sixth legions, left him in crowds, some deserting
to Caesar's camp, others fleeing to such places as were most convenient
for them. Curio's horse likewise, distrusting Scipio and his troops,
followed the same counsel. 

Chapter 53 

While these things were being carried on by Caesar and his opponents
around Uzita, two legions, the ninth and tenth, sailing in transports
from Sicily, when they came before Ruspina, observing Caesar's ships
that lay at anchor about Thapsus, and fearing it might be the enemy's
fleet stationed there to intercept them, imprudently stood out to
sea; and after being long tossed by the winds, and harassed by thirst
and famine, at last arrived at Caesar's camp. 

Chapter 54 

Soon after these legions were landed, Caesar, calling to mind their
former licentious behaviour in Italy, and the rapines of some of their
officers, seized the slight pretext furnished by C. Avienus, a military
tribune of the tenth legion, who, when he set out for Sicily, filled
a ship entirely with his own slaves and horses, without taking on
board one single soldier. Wherefore, summoning all the military tribunes
and centurions to appear before his tribunal next day, he addressed
them in these terms, "I could have wished that those, whose insolence
and former licentious character have given me cause of complaint,
had been capable of amendment, and of making a good use of my mildness,
patience, and moderation. But since they know not how to confine themselves
within due bounds, I intend to make an example of them, according
to the law of arms, in order that others may be taught a better conduct.
Because you, C. Avienus, when you were in Italy, instigated the soldiers
of the Roman people to revolt from the republic and have been guilty
of rapines and plunders in the municipal towns; and because you have
never been of any real service, either to the commonwealth or to your
general, and in lieu of soldiers, have crowded the transports with
your slaves and equipage; so that, through your fault, the republic
is in want of soldiers, who at this time are not only useful, but
necessary; for all these causes, I break you with ignominy, and order
you to leave Africa this very day. In like manner I break you, A.
Fonteius, because you have behaved yourself as a seditious officer,
and as a bad citizen. You, T. Salienus, M. Tiro, C. Clusinus, have
attained the rank of centurions through my indulgence, and not through
your own merit; and since you have been invested with that rank, have
neither shown bravery in war, nor good conduct in peace, and have
been more zealous in raising seditions, and exciting the soldiers
against your general than in observing forbearance and moderation.
I therefore think you unworthy of continuing centurions in my army:
I break you, and order you to quit Africa as soon as possible." Having
concluded this speech, he delivered them over to some centurions,
with orders to confine them separately on board a ship, allowing each
of them a single slave to wait on him. 

Chapter 55 

Meantime the Getulian deserters, whom Caesar had sent home with letters
and instructions, as we related above, arrived among their countrymen:
who, partly swayed by their authority, partly by the name and reputation
of Caesar, revolted from Juba; and speedily and unanimously taking
up arms, scrupled not to act in opposition to their king. Juba, having
thus three wars to sustain, was compelled to detach six cohorts from
the army destined to act against Caesar, and send them to defend the
frontiers of his kingdom against the Getulians. 

Chapter 56 

Caesar, having finished his lines of communication, and pushed them
so near the town, as to be just out of reach of dart, intrenched himself
there. He caused warlike engines in great numbers to be placed in
the front of his works, wherewith he played perpetually against the
town; and to increase the enemy's apprehensions, drew five legions
out of his other camp. When this opportunity was presented, several
persons of eminence and distinction earnestly requested an interview
with their friends, and held frequent conferences, which Caesar foresaw
would turn to his advantage. For the chief officers of the Getulian
horse, with other illustrious men of that nation (whose fathers had
served under C. Marius, and from his bounty obtained considerable
estates in their country, but after Sylla's victory had been made
tributaries to king Hiempsal), taking advantage of the night, when
the fires were lighted, came over to Caesar's camp near Uzita, with
their horses and servants, to the number of about a thousand.

Chapter 57 

When Scipio and his party learned this, and were much annoyed at the
disaster, they perceived, much about the same time, M. Aquinius in
discourse with C. Saserna. Scipio sent him word that he did not do
well to correspond with the enemy. Aquinius, however, paid no attention
to this reprimand, but pursued his discourse. Soon after, one of Juba's
guards came to him and told him, in the hearing of Saserna, "The king
forbids you to continue this conversation." He, being terrified by
this order, immediately retired, and obeyed the command of the king.
One can not wonder enough at this step in a Roman citizen, who had
already attained to considerable honors in the commonwealth; that
though neither banished his country, nor stripped of his possessions,
he should pay a more ready obedience to the orders of a foreign prince
than those of Scipio; and choose rather to behold the destruction
of his party than return into the bosom of his country. And still
greater insolence was shown by Juba, not to M. Aquinius, a man of
no family, and an inconsiderable senator, but even to Scipio himself,
a man of illustrious birth, distinguished honors, and high dignity
in the state. For as Scipio, before the king's arrival, always wore
a purple coat of mail, Juba is reported to have told him, that he
ought not to wear the same habit as he did. Accordingly, Scipio changed
his purple robe for a white one, submitting to Juba, a most haughty
and insolent monarch. 

Chapter 58 

Next day they drew out all their forces from both camps; and forming
them on an eminence not far from Caesar's camp, continued thus in
order of battle. Caesar likewise drew out his men, and disposed them
in battle array before his lines; not doubting but the enemy, who
exceeded him in number of troops, and had been so considerably reinforced
by the arrival of king Juba, would advance to attack him. Wherefore,
having ridden through the ranks, encouraged his men, and gave them
the signal of battle, he stayed, expecting the enemy's charge. For
he did not think it advisable to remove far from his lines: because
the enemy having a strong garrison in Uzita, which was opposite to
his right wing, he could not advance beyond that place without exposing
his flank to a sally from the town. He was also deterred by the following
reason, because the ground before Scipio's army was very rough, and
he thought it likely to disorder his men in the charge. 

Chapter 59 

And I think that I ought not to omit to describe the order of battle
of both armies. Scipio drew up his troops in the following manner:
he posted his own legions and those of Juba in the front; behind them
the Numidians, as a body of reserve: but in so very thin ranks, and
so far extended in length, that to see them at a distance you would
have taken the main body for a simple line of legionaries, which was
doubled only upon the wings. He placed elephants at equal distances
on the right and left, and supported them by the light-armed troops
and auxiliary Numidians. All the regular cavalry were on the right;
for the left was covered by the town of Uzita, nor had the cavalry
room to extend themselves on that side. Accordingly, he stationed
the Numidian horse, with an incredible multitude of light-armed foot,
about a thousand paces from his right, toward the foot of a mountain,
considerably removed from his own and the enemy's troops. He did so
with this intention, that, when the two armies should engage, his
cavalry at the commencement of the action should take a longer sweep,
inclose Caesar's army and throw them into confusion by their darts.
Such was Scipio's disposition. 

Chapter 60 

Caesar's order of battle, to describe it from left to right, was arranged
in the following manner: the ninth and eighth legions formed the left
wing: the thirteenth, fourteenth, twenty-eighth, and twenty-sixth,
the main body; and the thirtieth and twenty-eighth the right. His
second line on the right consisted partly of the cohorts of those
legions we have already mentioned, partly of the new levies. His third
line was posted to the left, extending as far as the middle legion
of the main body, and so disposed, that the left wing formed a triple
order of battle. The reason of this disposition was, because his right
wing being defended by the works, it behooved him to make his left
stronger, that they might be a match for the numerous cavalry of the
enemy; for which reason he had placed all his horse there, intermixed
with light-armed foot; and as he could not rely much upon them, had
detached the fifth legion to sustain them. He placed archers up and
down the field, but principally in the two wings. 

Chapter 61 

The two armies thus facing one another in order of battle, with a
space of no more than three hundred paces between, continued so posted
from morning till night without fighting, of which perhaps there was
never an instance before. But when Caesar began to retreat within
his lines, suddenly all the Numidian and Getulian horse without bridles,
who were posted behind the enemy's army, made a motion to the right,
and began to approach Caesar's camp on the mountain; while the regular
cavalry under Labienus continued in their post to keep our legions
in check. Upon this, part of Caesar's cavalry, with the light-armed
foot, advancing hastily, and without orders, against the Getulians,
and venturing to pass the morass, found themselves unable to deal
with the superior multitude of the enemy; and being abandoned by the
light-armed troops, were forced to retreat in great disorder, after
the loss of one trooper, twenty-six light-armed foot, and many of
their horses wounded. Scipio, overjoyed at this success, returned
toward night to his camp. But fortune determined not to give such
unalloyed joy to those engaged in war, for the day after, a party
of horse, sent by Caesar to Leptis in quest of provisions, falling
in unexpectedly with some Numidian and Getulian stragglers, killed
or made prisoners about a hundred of them. Caesar, meanwhile, omitted
not every day to draw out his men and labor at the works; carrying
a ditch and rampart quite across the plain, to prevent the incursions
of the enemy. Scipio likewise drew lines opposite to Caesar's, and
used great exertions lest Caesar should cut off his communication
with the mountain. Thus both generals were busied about their intrenchments,
yet a day seldom passed, without some skirmish between the cavalry.

Chapter 62 

In the mean time, Varus, upon notice that the seventh and eighth legions
had sailed from Sicily, speedily equipped the fleet he had brought
to winter at Utica; and manning it with Getulian rowers and mariners,
went out a cruising and came before Adrumetum with fifty-five ships.
Caesar, ignorant of his arrival, sent L. Cispius, with a squadron
of twenty-seven sail toward Thapsus, to anchor there for the security
of his convoys; and likewise dispatched Q. Aquila to Adrumetum, with
thirteen galleys, upon the same errand. Cispius soon reached the station
appointed to him: but Aquila being attacked by a storm could not double
the cape, which obliged him to put into a creek at some distance,
that afforded convenient shelter. The rest of the fleet which remained
at sea before Leptis, where the mariners having landed and wandered
here and there upon the shore, some having gone into the town for
the purpose of purchasing provisions, was left quite defenseless.
Varus, having notice of this from a deserter, and resolving to take
advantage of the enemy's negligence, left Adrumetum in Cothon at the
commencement of the second watch, and arriving early next morning
with his whole fleet before Leptis, burned all the transports that
were out at sea, and took without opposition two five-benched galleys,
in which were none to defend them. 

Chapter 63 

Caesar had an account brought him of this unlucky accident, as he
was inspecting the works of his camp. Whereupon he immediately took
horse, and leaving every thing else, went full speed to Leptis, which
was but two leagues distant, and going on board a brigantine, ordered
all the ships to follow him. He soon came up with Aquila, whom he
found dismayed and terrified at the number of ships he had to oppose;
and continuing his course, began to pursue the enemy's fleet. Meantime
Varus, astonished at Caesar's boldness and dispatch, tacked about
with his whole fleet, and made the best of his way for Adrumetum.
But Caesar, after four miles' sail, recovered one of his galleys,
with the crew and a hundred and thirty of the enemy's men left to
guard her; and took a three benched galley belonging to the enemy
which had fallen astern during the engagement, with all the soldiers
and mariners on board. The rest of the fleet doubled the cape, and
made the port of Adrumetum in Cothon. Caesar could not double the
cape with the same wind, but keeping the sea at anchor all night,
appeared early next morning before Adrumetum. He set fire to all the
transports without Cothon, and took what galleys he found there, or
forced them into the harbor; and having waited some time to offer
the enemy battle, returned again to his camp. 

Chapter 64 

On board the ship he had taken was P. Vestrius, a Roman knight, and
P. Ligarius, who had served in Spain under Afranius, the same who
had prosecuted the war against him in Spain, and who, instead of acknowledging
the conqueror's generosity, in granting him his liberty, had joined
Pompey in Greece; and after the battle of Pharsalia, had gone into
Africa, to Varus, there to continue in the service of the same cause.
Caesar, to punish his perfidy and breach of oath, gave immediate orders
for his execution. But he pardoned P. Vestrius, because his brother
had paid his ransom at Rome, and because he himself proved, that being
taken in Nasidius's fleet, and condemned to die, he had been saved
by the kindness of Varus, since which no opportunity had offered of
making his escape. 

Chapter 65 

It is the custom of the people of Africa to deposit their corn privately
in vaults, under ground, to secure it in time of war, and guard it
from the sudden incursions of an enemy. Caesar, having intelligence
of this from a spy, drew out two legions, with a party of cavalry,
at midnight, and sent them about ten miles off; whence they returned,
loaded with corn to the camp. Labienus, being informed of it, marched
about seven miles, through the mountains Caesar had passed the day
before, and there encamped with two legions; where expecting that
Caesar would often come the same way in quest of corn, he daily lay
in ambush with a great body of horse and light-armed foot.

Chapter 66 

Caesar, being informed of the ambuscade of Labienus by deserters,
delayed there a few days, till the enemy, by repeating the practice
often, had abated a little of their circumspection. Then suddenly,
one morning ordering eight veteran legions with part of the cavalry
to follow him by the Decuman gate, he sent forward the rest of the
cavalry; who, coming suddenly upon the enemy's light-armed foot, that
lay in ambush among the valleys, slew about five hundred, and put
the rest to flight. Meantime Labienus advanced, with all his cavalry,
to support the fugitives, and was on the point of overpowering our
small party with his numbers, when suddenly Caesar appeared with the
legions, in order of battle. This sight checked the ardor of Labienus,
who thought proper to sound a retreat. The day after, Juba ordered
all the Numidians who had deserted their post and fled to their camp
to be crucified. 

Chapter 67 

Meanwhile Caesar, being distressed by want of corn, recalled all his
forces to the camp; and having left garrisons at Leptis, Ruspina,
and Acilla, ordered Cispius and Aquila to blockade with their fleets,
the one Adrumetum, the other Thapsus, and setting fire to his camp
at Uzita, he set out, in order of battle, at the fourth watch, disposed
his baggage on the left, and came to Agar, which had been often vigorously
attacked by the Getulians, and as valiantly defended by the inhabitants.
There encamping in the plain before the town, he went with part of
his army round the country in quest of provisions; and having found
a large store of barley, oil, wine, and figs, with a small quantity
of wheat, after allowing the troops some time to refresh themselves,
he returned to his camp. Scipio meanwhile hearing of Caesar's departure,
followed him along the hills, with all his forces, and posted himself
about six miles off; in three different camps. 

Chapter 68 

The town of Zeta, lying on Scipio's side of the country, was not above
ten miles from his camp, but might be about eighteen from that of
Caesar. Scipio had sent two legions thither to forage; which Caesar
having intelligence of from a deserter, removed his camp from the
plain to a hill, for the greater security; and leaving a garrison
there, marched at three in the morning with the rest of his forces,
passed the enemy's camp, and possessed himself of the town. He found
that Scipio's legions were gone further into the country to forage:
against whom, setting out immediately, he found that the whole army
had come up to their assistance, which obliged him to give over the
pursuit. He took, on this occasion, C. Mutius Reginus, a Roman knight,
Scipio's intimate friend, and governor of the town; also P. Atrius,
a Roman knight, of the province of Utica, with twenty-two camels,
belonging to king Juba. Then leaving a garrison in the place, under
the command of Oppius, his lieutenant, he returned to his own camp.

Chapter 69 

As he drew near Scipio's camp, by which he was obliged to pass, Labienus
and Afranius, who lay in ambuscade among the nearest hills, with all
their cavalry and light-armed infantry, started up and attacked his
rear. When Caesar perceived this, he detached his cavalry to receive
their charge, ordered the legions to throw all their baggage into
a heap, and face about upon the enemy. No sooner was this order executed
than, upon the first charge of the legions, the enemy's horse and
light-armed foot began to give way, and were with incredible ease
driven from the higher ground. But when Caesar, supposing them sufficiently
deterred from any further attempts, began to pursue his march, they
again issued from the hills; and the Numidians, with the light armed
infantry, who are wonderfully nimble, and accustom themselves to fight
intermixed with the horse, with whom they keep an equal pace, either
in advancing or retiring, fell a second time upon our foot. As they
repeated this often, pressing upon our troops when we marched, and
retiring when we endeavored to engage, always keeping at a certain
distance, and with singular care avoiding a close fight, and considering
it enough to wound us with their darts, Caesar plainly saw that their
whole aim was to oblige him to encamp in that place, where no water
was to be had; that his soldiers, who had tasted nothing from three
in the morning till four in the afternoon, might perish with hunger,
and the cattle with thirst. 

Chapter 70 

When sunset now approached, and Caesar found he had not gained a hundred
paces in four hours, and that by keeping his cavalry in the rear he
lost many horse, he ordered the legions to fall behind, and close
the march. Proceeding thus with a slow and gentle pace, he found the
legions fitter to sustain the enemy's charge. Meantime the Numidian
horse, wheeling round the hills, to the right and left, threatened
to inclose Caesar's forces with their numbers, while part continued
to harass his rear: and if but three or four veteran soldiers faced
about, and darted their javelins at the enemy, no less than two thousand
of them would tale to flight: but suddenly rallying, returned to the
fight, and charged the legionaries with their darts. Thus Caesar,
at one time marching forward, at another halting, and going on but
slowly, reached the camp safe, about seven that evening, having only
ten men wounded. Labienus too retreated to his camp, after having
thoroughly fatigued his troops with the pursuit: in which, besides
a great number wounded, his loss amounted to about three hundred men.
And Scipio withdrew his legions and elephants, whom, for the greater
terror, he had ranged before his camp within view of Caesar's army.

Chapter 71 

Caesar, to meet enemies of this sort, was necessitated to instruct
his soldiers, not like a general of a veteran army which had been
victorious in so many battles, but like a fencing master training
up his gladiators, with what foot they must advance or retire; when
they were to oppose and make good their ground; when to counterfeit
an attack; at what place, and in what manner to launch their javelins.
For the enemy's light-armed troops gave wonderful trouble and annoyance
to our army; because they not only deterred the cavalry from the encounter,
by killing their horses with their javelins, but likewise wearied
out the legionary soldiers by their swiftness: for as often as these
heavy-armed troops advanced to attack them, they evaded the danger
by a quick retreat. 

Chapter 72 

Caesar was rendered very anxious by these occurrences; because as
often as he engaged with his cavalry, without being supported by the
infantry, he found himself by no means a match for the enemy's horse,
supported by their light-armed foot: and as he had no experience of
the strength of their legions, he foresaw still greater difficulties
when these should be united, as the shock must then be overwhelming.
In addition to this, the number and size of the elephants greatly
increased the terror of the soldiers; for which, however, he found
a remedy, in causing some of those animals to be brought over from
Italy, that his men might be accustomed to the sight of them, know
their strength and courage, and in what part of the body they were
most vulnerable. For as the elephants are covered with trappings and
ornaments, it was necessary to inform them what parts of the body
remained naked, that they might direct their darts thither. It was
likewise needful to familiarize his horses to the cry, smell, and
figure of these animals; in all of which he succeeded to a wonder;
for the soldiers quickly came to touch them with their hands, and
to be sensible of their tardiness; and the cavalry attacked them with
blunted darts, and, by degrees, brought their horses to endure their

Chapter 73 

For these reasons already mentioned, Caesar was very anxious, and
proceeded with more slowness and circumspection than usual, abating
considerably in his wonted expedition and celerity. Nor ought we to
wonder; for in Gaul he had under him troops accustomed to fight in
a champaign country, against an open undesigning enemy, who despised
artifice, and valued themselves only on their bravery. But now he
was to habituate his soldiers to the arts and contrivances of a crafty
enemy, and teach them what to pursue, and what to avoid. The sooner
therefore to instruct them in these matters, he took care not to confine
his legions to one place, but under pretense of foraging, engaged
them in frequent marches, and counter-marches; because he thought
that the enemy's troops would not lose his track. Three days after,
he drew up his forces with great skill, and marching past Scipio's
camp, waited for him in an open plain; but seeing that he still declined
a battle, he retreated to his camp a little before evening.

Chapter 74 

Meantime embassadors arrived from the town of Vacca, bordering upon
Zeta, of which we have observed Caesar had possessed himself. They
requested and entreated that he would send them a garrison, promising
to furnish many of the necessaries of war. At the same time, by the
will of the gods, and their kindness to Caesar, a deserter informed
him, that Juba had, by a quick march, before Caesar's troops could
arrive, reached the town and surrounded it, and after taking possession
of it, massacred the inhabitants, and abandoned the place itself to
the plunder of his soldiers. 

Chapter 75 

Caesar, having reviewed his army the twelfth day before the calends
of April, advanced next day, with all his forces, five miles beyond
his camp, and remained a considerable time in order of battle, two
miles from Scipio's. When he saw distinctly that the enemy, though
frequently and for a long time challenged to a battle, declined it,
he led back his troops. Next day he decamped, and directed his march
toward Sarsura, where Scipio had a garrison of Numidians, and a magazine
of corn. Labienus being informed of this motion, began to harass his
rear with the cavalry and light-armed troops: and having made himself
master of part of the baggage, was encouraged to attack the legions
themselves, believing they would fall an easy prey, under the load
and encumbrance of a march. However, this circumstance had not escaped
Caesar's attention, for he had ordered three hundred men out of each
legion to hold themselves in readiness for action. These being sent
against Labienus, he was so terrified at their approach, that he shamefully
took to flight, great numbers of his men being killed or wounded.
The legionaries returned to their standards, and pursued their march.
Labienus continued to follow us at a distance along the summit of
the mountains on our right. 

Chapter 76 

Caesar, arriving before Sarsura, took it in presence of the enemy,
who durst not advance to its relief; and put to the sword the garrison
which had been left there by Scipio, under the command of P. Cornelius,
one of Scipio's veterans, who, after a vigorous defense, was surrounded
slain. Having given all the corn in the place to the army, he marched
next day to Tisdra, where Considius was, with a strong garrison and
his cohort of gladiators. Caesar, having taken a view of the town,
and being deterred from besieging it by want of corn, set out immediately,
and after a march of four miles, encamped near a river. He marched
from it on the fourth day, and then returned to his former camp at
Agar. Scipio did the same, and retreated to his old quarters.

Chapter 77 

Meantime the inhabitants of Thabena, a nation situated on the extreme
confines of Juba's kingdom, along the seacoast, and who had been accustomed
to live in subjection to that monarch, having massacred the garrison
left there by the king, sent deputies to Caesar to inform him of what
they had done, and to beg he would take under his protection a city
which deserved so well of the Roman people. Caesar, approving their
conduct, sent M. Crispus the tribune, with a cohort, a party of archers,
and a great number of engines of war, to charge himself with the defense
of Thabena. At the same time the legionary soldiers, who, either on
account of sickness or for other reasons, had not been able to come
over into Africa with the rest, to the number of four thousand foot,
four hundred horse, and a thousand archers and slingers, reached Caesar
by one embarkation. With these and his former troops, he advanced
into a plain eight miles distant from his own camp, and four from
that of Scipio, where he awaited the enemy in order of battle.

Chapter 78 

There was a town below Scipio's camp, of the name of Tegea, where
he had a garrison of four hundred horse. These he drew up on the right
and left of the town; and bringing forth his legions, formed them
in order of battle upon a hill somewhat lower than his camp, and which
was about a thousand paces distant from it. After he had continued
a considerable time in one place, without offering to make any attempt,
Caesar sent some squadrons of horse, supported by his light-armed
infantry, archers, and slingers, to charge the enemy's cavalry, who
were on duty before the town. After Caesar's troops advanced and came
to the charge with their horses at a gallop, Placidius began to extend
his front, that he might at once surround us and give us a warm reception.
Upon this Caesar detached three hundred legionaries to our assistance,
while at the same time Labienus was continually sending fresh reinforcements,
to replace those that were wounded or fatigued. Our cavalry, who were
only four hundred in number, not being able to sustain the charge
of four thousand, and being besides greatly harassed by the light-armed
Numidians, began at last to give ground: which Caesar observing, detached
the other wing to their assistance: who, joining those that were like
to be overpowered, fell in a body upon the enemy, put them to flight,
slew or wounded great numbers, pursued them three miles quite to the
mountains, and then returned to their own men. Caesar continued in
order of battle till four in the afternoon, and then retreated to
his camp without the loss of a man. In this action Placidius received
a dangerous wound in the head, and had many of his best officers either
killed or wounded. 

Chapter 79 

After he found that he could not by any means induce the enemy to
come down to the plain and make trial of the legions, and that he
could not encamp nearer them for want of water, in consideration of
which alone, and not from any confidence in their numbers, the Africans
had dared to despise him; he decamped the day before the nones of
April at midnight, marched sixteen miles beyond Agar to Thapsus, where
Virgilius commanded with a strong garrison, and there fixed his camp,
and began to surround the town the very day on which he arrived, and
raised redoubts in proper places, as well for his own security, as
to prevent any succors from entering the town. In the mean time, Scipio,
on learning Caesar's designs, was reduced to the necessity of fighting,
to avoid the disgrace of abandoning Virgilius and the Thapsitani,
who had all along remained firm to his party; and therefore, following
Caesar without delay, he posted himself in two camps eight miles from

Chapter 80 

Now there were some salt-pits, between which and the sea was a narrow
pass of about fifteen hundred paces, by which Scipio endeavored to
penetrate and carry succors to the inhabitants of Thapsus. But Caesar
anticipating that this might happen, had the day before raised a very
strong fort at the entrance of it, in which he left a triple garrison;
and encamping with the rest of his troops in the form of a half moon,
carried his works round the town. Scipio, disappointed in his design,
passed the day and night following a little above the morass; but
early next morning advanced within a small distance of the last mentioned
camp and fort, where he began to intrench himself about fifteen hundred
paces from the sea. Caesar being informed of this, drew off his men
from the works; and leaving Asprenas the proconsul, with two legions,
at the camp, marched all the rest of his forces with the utmost expedition
to that place. He left part of the fleet before Thapsus, and ordered
the rest to make as near the shore as possible toward the enemy's
rear, observing the signal he should give them, upon which they were
to raise a sudden shout, that the enemy, alarmed and disturbed by
the noise behind them, might be forced to face about. 

Chapter 81 

When Caesar came to the place, he found Scipio's army in order of
battle before the intrenchments, the elephants posted on the right
and left wings, and part of the soldiers busily employed in fortifying
the camp. Upon sight of this disposition, he drew up his army in three
lines, placed the tenth and second legions on the right wing, the
eighth and ninth on the left, five legions in the center, covered
his flanks with five cohorts, posted opposite the elephants, disposed
the archers and slingers in the two wings, and intermingled the light-armed
troops with his cavalry. He himself on foot went from rank to rank,
to rouse the courage of the veterans, putting them in mind of their
former victories, and animating them by his kind expressions. He exhorted
the new levies who had never yet been in battle to emulate the bravery
of the veterans, and endeavor by a victory to attain the same degree
of fame, glory, and renown. 

Chapter 82 

As he ran from rank to rank, he observed the enemy about the camp
very uneasy, hurrying from place to place, at one time retiring behind
the rampart, another coming out again in great tumult and confusion.
As many others in the army began to observe this, his lieutenants
and volunteers begged him to give the signal for battle, as the immortal
gods promised him a decisive victory. While he hesitated and strove
to repress their eagerness and desires, exclaiming that it was not
his wish to commence the battle by a sudden sally, at the same time
keeping back his army, on a sudden a trumpeter in the right wing,
without Caesar's leave, but compelled by the soldiers, sounded a charge.
Upon this all the cohorts began to rush toward the enemy, in spite
of the endeavors of the centurions, who strove to restrain them by
force, lest they should charge withal the general's order, but to
no purpose. 

Chapter 83 

Caesar perceiving that the ardor of his soldiers would admit of no
restraint, giving "good fortune" for the word, spurred on his horse,
and charged the enemy's front. On the right wing the archers and slingers
poured their eager javelins without intermission upon the elephants,
and by the noise of their slings and stones, so terrified these animals,
that turning upon their own men, they trod them down in heaps, and
rushed through the half-finished gates of the camp. At the same time
the Mauritanian horse, who were in the same wing with the elephants,
seeing themselves deprived of their assistance, betook themselves
to flight. Whereupon the legions wheeling round the elephants, soon
possessed themselves of the enemy's intrenchments, and some few that
made great resistance being slain, the rest fled with all expedition
to the camp they had quitted the day before. 

Chapter 84 

And here we must not omit to notice the bravery of a veteran soldier
of the fifth legion. For when an elephant which had been wounded in
the left wing, and, roused to fury by the pain, ran against an unarmed
sutler, threw him under his feet, and kneeling on him with his whole
weight, and brandishing his uplifted trunk, with hideous cries, crushed
him to death, the soldier could not refrain from attacking the animal.
The elephant, seeing him advance with his javelin in his hand, quitted
the dead body of the sutler, and seizing him with his trunk, wheeled
him round in the air. But he, amid all the danger, preserving his
presence of mind, ceased not with his sword to strike at the elephant's
trunk, which enclasped him, and the animal, at last overcome with
the pain, quitted the soldier, and fled to the rest with hideous cries,

Chapter 85 

Meanwhile the garrison of Thapsus, either designing to assist their
friends, or abandoning the town to seek safety by flight, sallied
out by the gate next the sea, and wading navel deep in the water;
endeavored to reach the land. But the servants and attendants of the
camp, attacking them with darts and stones, obliged them to return
to the town. Scipio's forces meanwhile being beaten, and his men fleeing
on all sides, the legions instantly began the pursuit, that they might
have no time to rally. When they arrived at the camp to which they
fled, and where, having repaired it, they hoped to defend themselves
they began to think of choosing a commander, to whose, authority and
orders they might submit; but finding none on whom they could rely,
they threw down their arms, and fled to the king's quarter. Finding
this, on their arrival, occupied by Caesar's forces, they retired
to a hill, where, despairing of safety, they cast down their arms,
and saluted them in a military manner. But this stood them in little
stead, for the veterans, transported with rage and anger, not only
could not be induced to spare the enemy, but even killed or wounded
several citizens of distinction in their own army, whom they upbraided
as authors of the war. Of this number was Tullius Rufus the quaestor,
whom a soldier designedly ran through with a javelin; and Pompeius
Rufus, who was wounded with a sword in the arm, and would doubtless
have been slain, had he not speedily fled to Caesar for protection.
This made several Roman knights and senators retire from the battle,
lest the soldiers, who after so signal a victory assumed an unbounded
license, should be induced by the hopes of impunity to wreck their
fury on them likewise. In short all Scipio's soldiers, though they
implored the protection of Caesar, were in the very sight of that
general, and in spite of his entreaties to his men to spare them,
without exception put to the sword. 

Chapter 86 

Caesar, having made himself master of the enemy's three camps, killed
ten thousand, and putting the rest to flight, retreated to his own
quarters with the loss of not more than fifty men and a few wounded.
In his way he appeared before the town of Thapsus, and ranged all
the elephants he had taken in the battle, amounting to sixty-four,
with their ornaments, trappings, and castles, in full view of the
place. This he did in hopes that possibly Virgilius and those that
were besieged with him might give over the idea of resistance on learning
the defeat of their friends. He even called and invited him to submit,
reminding him of his clemency and mildness; but no answer being given,
he retired from before the town. Next day, after returning thanks
to the gods, he assembled his army before Thapsus, praised his soldiers
in presence of the inhabitants, rewarded the victorious, and from
his tribunal extended his bounty to every one, according to their
merit and services. Setting out thence immediately he left the proconsul
C. Rebellius, with three legions, to continue the siege, and sent
Cn. Domitius with two to invest Tisdra, where Considius commanded.
Then ordering M. Messala to go before with the cavalry, he began his
march to Utica. 

Chapter 87 

Scipio's cavalry, who had escaped out of the battle, taking the road
to Utica, arrived at Parada; but being refused admittance by the inhabitants,
who heard of Caesar's victory, they forced the gates, lighted a great
fire in the middle of the forum, and threw all the inhabitants into
it, without distinction of age or sex, with their effects; avenging
in this manner, by an unheard of cruelty, the affront they had received.
Thence they marched directly to Utica. M. Cato, some time before,
distrusting the inhabitants of that city, on account of the privileges
granted them by the Julian law, had disarmed and expelled the populace,
obliging them to dwell without the Warlike gate, in a small camp surrounded
by a slight intrenchment, around which he had planted guards, while
at the same time he put the senators under arrest. The cavalry attacked
their camp, knowing them to be favorers of Caesar, and intending to
wipe out by their destruction, the disgrace of their own defeat. But
the people, animated by Caesar's victory, repulsed them with stones
and clubs. They therefore threw themselves into the town, killed many
of the inhabitants, and pillaged their houses. Cato, unable to prevail
with them to abstain from rapine and slaughter, and undertake the
defense of the town, as he was not ignorant of what they aimed at,
gave each a hundred sesterces to make them quiet. Sylla Faustus did
the same out of his own money; and marching with them from Utica,
advanced into the kingdom. 

Chapter 88 

A great many others that had escaped out of the battle, fled to Utica.
These Cato assembled, with three hundred more who had furnished Scipio
with money for carrying on the war, and exhorted them to set their
slaves free, and in conjunction with them defend the town. But finding
that though part assembled, the rest were terrified and determined
to flee, he gave over the attempt, and furnished them with ships to
facilitate their escape. He himself, having settled all his affairs
with the utmost care, and commended his children to L. Caesar his
quaestor, without the least indication which might give cause of suspicion,
or any change in his countenance and behavior, privately carried a
sword into his chamber when he retired to rest, and stabbed himself
with it. When the wound not proving mortal, he fell heavily to the
ground, his physician and friends suspecting what was going on, burst
into the room and began to stanch and bind up his wound, he himself
most resolutely tore it open, and met death with the greatest determination.
The Uticans, though they hated his party, yet in consideration of
his singular integrity, his behavior so different from that of the
other chiefs, and because he had strengthened their town with wonderful
fortifications, and increased the towers, interred him honorably.
L. Caesar, that he might procure some advantage by his death, assembled
the people, and after haranguing them, exhorted them to open their
gates, and throw themselves upon Caesar's clemency, from which they
had the greatest reason to hope the best. This advice being followed,
he came forth to meet Caesar. Messala having reached Utica, according
to his orders, placed guards at the gates. 

Chapter 89 

Meanwhile Caesar, leaving Thapsus came to Usceta, where Scipio had
laid up a great store of corn, arms, darts, and other warlike provisions,
under a small guard. He soon made himself master of the place, and
marched directly to Adrumetum, which he entered without opposition.
He took an account of the arms, provisions, and money in the town;
pardoned Q. Ligarius, and C. Considius; and leaving Livineius Regulus
there with one legion, set out the same day for Utica. L. Caesar,
meeting him by the way, threw himself at his feet, and only begged
for his life. Caesar, according to his wonted clemency, easily pardoned
him, as he did likewise Caecina, C. Ateius, P. Atrius, L. Cella, father
and son, M. Eppius, M. Aquinius, Cato's son, and the children of Damasippus.
He arrived at Utica in the evening by torch-light, and continued all
that night without the town. 

Chapter 90 

Early on the morning of the following day he entered the place, summoned
an assembly of the people, and thanked them for the affection they
had shown to his cause. At the same time he censured severely, and
enlarged upon the crime of the Roman citizens and merchants, and the
rest of the three hundred, who had furnished Scipio and Varus with
money; but concluded with telling them, that they might show themselves
without fear, as he was resolved to grant them their lives, and content
himself with exposing their effects to sale; but that he would give
them notice when their goods were to be sold, and the liberty of redeeming
them upon payment of a certain fine. The merchants, half dead with
fear, and conscious that they merited death, hearing upon what terms
life was offered them, greedily accepted the condition, and entreated
Caesar that he would impose a certain sum in gross upon all the three
hundred. Accordingly, he amerced them in two hundred thousand sesterces,
to be paid to the republic, at six equal payments, within the space
of three years. They all accepted the condition, and considering that
day as a second nativity, joyfully returned thanks to Caesar.

Chapter 91 

Meanwhile, king Juba, who had escaped from the battle with Petreius,
hiding himself all day in the villages, and traveling only by night,
arrived at last in Numidia. When he came to Zama, his ordinary place
of residence, where were his wives and children, with all his treasures,
and whatever he held most valuable, and which he had strongly fortified
at the beginning of the war; the inhabitants, having heard of Caesar's
victory, refused him admission, because, upon declaring war against
the Romans, he had raised a mighty pile of wood in the middle of the
forum, designing, if unsuccessful, to massacre all the citizens, fling
their bodies and effects upon the pile, then setting fire to the mass,
and throwing himself upon it, destroy all without exception, wives,
children, citizens, and treasures, in one general conflagration. After
continuing a considerable time before the gates, finding that neither
threats nor entreaties would avail, he at last desired them to deliver
up his wives and children, that he might carry them along with him.
But receiving no answer, and seeing them determined to grant him nothing,
he quitted the place, and retired to one of his country-seats with
Petreius and a few horse. 

Chapter 92 

Meantime the Zamians sent embassadors to Caesar at Utica, to inform
him of what they had done, and to request "that he should send them