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The Analects
By Confucius



Part 1 

The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance
and application? 

"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?

"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though
men may take no note of him?" 

The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal,
are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none,
who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond
of stirring up confusion. 

"The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being
established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety
and fraternal submission,-are they not the root of all benevolent

The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom
associated with true virtue." 

The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-whether,
in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether,
in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether
I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."

The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there
must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in
expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at
the proper seasons." 

The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad,
respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should
overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good.
When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things,
he should employ them in polite studies." 

Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty,
and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving
his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his
prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends,
his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I
will certainly say that he has. 

The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth
any veneration, and his learning will not be solid. 

"Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles. 
"Have no friends not equal to yourself. 
"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them." 
The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful attention to perform
the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone
with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the people will
resume its proper excellence." 

Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung saying, "When our master comes to any country,
he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his
information? or is it given to him?" 

Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate,
and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The master's mode
of asking information,-is it not different from that of other men?"

The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look at the bent
of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for
three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be
called filial." 

The philosopher Yu said, "In practicing the rules of propriety, a
natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient
kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great
we follow them. 

"Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such
ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the
rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done." 

The philosopher Yu said, "When agreements are made according to what
is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according
to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the
parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with,
he can make them his guides and masters." 

The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his
food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place
does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing,
and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle
that he may be rectified:-such a person may be said indeed to love
to learn." 

Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who
yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master
replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though
poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules
of propriety." 

Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut
and then file, as you carve and then polish.'-The meaning is the same,
I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed." 

The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the
odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."

The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me;
I will be afflicted that I do not know men." 

Part 2

The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue
may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and
all the stars turn towards it." 

The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces,
but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence 'Having
no depraved thoughts.'" 

The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought
to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment,
but have no sense of shame. 

"If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them
by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and
moreover will become good." 

The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.

"At thirty, I stood firm. 
"At forty, I had no doubts. 
"At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven. 
"At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

"At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing
what was right." 

Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being

Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying,
"Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,-'not
being disobedient.'" 

Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That parents,
when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they
should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed
to according to propriety." 

Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are
anxious lest their children should be sick." 

Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial
piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses
likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-without reverence,
what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"

Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty
is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome
affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have
wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered
filial piety?" 

The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has
not made any objection to anything I said;-as if he were stupid. He
has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and
found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-He is not stupid."

The Master said, "See what a man does. 
"Mark his motives. 
"Examine in what things he rests. 
"How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?"

The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so
as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."

The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."

Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said,
"He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his

The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The
mean man is partisan and not catholic." 

The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought
without learning is perilous." 

The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"

The Master said, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you
know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a
thing, to allow that you do not know it;-this is knowledge."

Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.

The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you
stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the
others:-then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and
put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at
the same time in carrying the others into practice: then you will
have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for
blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct,
he is in the way to get emolument." 

The Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure
the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright
and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the
crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."

Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler,
to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue.
The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;-then they
will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;-then they will
be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-then
they will eagerly seek to be virtuous." 

Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged
in the government?" 

The Master said, "What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety?-'You
are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are
displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise
of government. Why must there be THAT-making one be in the government?"

The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is
to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar
for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement
for yoking the horses?" 

Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsia:
wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty
has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added
to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it
should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."

The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not
belong to him is flattery. 

"To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."

Part 3

Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who had eight rows of
pantomimes in his area, "If he can bear to do this, what may he not
bear to do?" 

The three families used the Yungode, while the vessels were being
removed, at the conclusion of the sacrifice. The Master said, "'Assisting
are the princes;-the son of heaven looks profound and grave';-what
application can these words have in the hall of the three families?"

The Master said, "If a man be without the virtues proper to humanity,
what has he to do with the rites of propriety? If a man be without
the virtues proper to humanity, what has he to do with music?"

Lin Fang asked what was the first thing to be attended to in ceremonies.

The Master said, "A great question indeed! 
"In festive ceremonies, it is better to be sparing than extravagant.
In the ceremonies of mourning, it is better that there be deep sorrow
than in minute attention to observances." 

The Master said, "The rude tribes of the east and north have their
princes, and are not like the States of our great land which are without

The chief of the Chi family was about to sacrifice to the T'ai mountain.
The Master said to Zan Yu, "Can you not save him from this?" He answered,
"I cannot." Confucius said, "Alas! will you say that the T'ai mountain
is not so discerning as Lin Fang?" 

The Master said, "The student of virtue has no contentions. If it
be said he cannot avoid them, shall this be in archery? But he bows
complaisantly to his competitors; thus he ascends the hall, descends,
and exacts the forfeit of drinking. In his contention, he is still
the Chun-tsze." 

Tsze-hsia asked, saying, "What is the meaning of the passage-'The
pretty dimples of her artful smile! The well-defined black and white
of her eye! The plain ground for the colors?'" 

The Master said, "The business of laying on the colors follows the
preparation of the plain ground." 

"Ceremonies then are a subsequent thing?" The Master said, "It is
Shang who can bring out my meaning. Now I can begin to talk about
the odes with him." 

The Master said, "I could describe the ceremonies of the Hsia dynasty,
but Chi cannot sufficiently attest my words. I could describe the
ceremonies of the Yin dynasty, but Sung cannot sufficiently attest
my words. They cannot do so because of the insufficiency of their
records and wise men. If those were sufficient, I could adduce them
in support of my words." 

The Master said, "At the great sacrifice, after the pouring out of
the libation, I have no wish to look on." 

Some one asked the meaning of the great sacrifice. The Master said,
"I do not know. He who knew its meaning would find it as easy to govern
the kingdom as to look on this"-pointing to his palm. 

He sacrificed to the dead, as if they were present. He sacrificed
to the spirits, as if the spirits were present. 

The Master said, "I consider my not being present at the sacrifice,
as if I did not sacrifice." 

Wang-sun Chia asked, saying, "What is the meaning of the saying, 'It
is better to pay court to the furnace then to the southwest corner?'"

The Master said, "Not so. He who offends against Heaven has none to
whom he can pray." 

The Master said, "Chau had the advantage of viewing the two past dynasties.
How complete and elegant are its regulations! I follow Chau."

The Master, when he entered the grand temple, asked about everything.
Some one said, "Who say that the son of the man of Tsau knows the
rules of propriety! He has entered the grand temple and asks about
everything." The Master heard the remark, and said, "This is a rule
of propriety." 

The Master said, "In archery it is not going through the leather which
is the principal thing;-because people's strength is not equal. This
was the old way." 

Tsze-kung wished to do away with the offering of a sheep connected
with the inauguration of the first day of each month. 

The Master said, "Ts'ze, you love the sheep; I love the ceremony."

The Master said, "The full observance of the rules of propriety in
serving one's prince is accounted by people to be flattery."

The Duke Ting asked how a prince should employ his ministers, and
how ministers should serve their prince. Confucius replied, "A prince
should employ his minister according to according to the rules of
propriety; ministers should serve their prince with faithfulness."

The Master said, "The Kwan Tsu is expressive of enjoyment without
being licentious, and of grief without being hurtfully excessive."

The Duke Ai asked Tsai Wo about the altars of the spirits of the land.
Tsai Wo replied, "The Hsia sovereign planted the pine tree about them;
the men of the Yin planted the cypress; and the men of the Chau planted
the chestnut tree, meaning thereby to cause the people to be in awe."

When the Master heard it, he said, "Things that are done, it is needless
to speak about; things that have had their course, it is needless
to remonstrate about; things that are past, it is needless to blame."

The Master said, "Small indeed was the capacity of Kwan Chung!"

Some one said, "Was Kwan Chung parsimonious?" "Kwan," was the reply,
"had the San Kwei, and his officers performed no double duties; how
can he be considered parsimonious?" 

"Then, did Kwan Chung know the rules of propriety?" The Master said,
"The princes of States have a screen intercepting the view at their
gates. Kwan had likewise a screen at his gate. The princes of States
on any friendly meeting between two of them, had a stand on which
to place their inverted cups. Kwan had also such a stand. If Kwan
knew the rules of propriety, who does not know them?" 

The Master instructing the grand music master of Lu said, "How to
play music may be known. At the commencement of the piece, all the
parts should sound together. As it proceeds, they should be in harmony
while severally distinct and flowing without break, and thus on to
the conclusion." 

The border warden at Yi requested to be introduced to the Master,
saying, "When men of superior virtue have come to this, I have never
been denied the privilege of seeing them." The followers of the sage
introduced him, and when he came out from the interview, he said,
"My friends, why are you distressed by your master's loss of office?
The kingdom has long been without the principles of truth and right;
Heaven is going to use your master as a bell with its wooden tongue."

The Master said of the Shao that it was perfectly beautiful and also
perfectly good. He said of the Wu that it was perfectly beautiful
but not perfectly good. 

The Master said, "High station filled without indulgent generosity;
ceremonies performed without reverence; mourning conducted without
sorrow;-wherewith should I contemplate such ways?" 

Part 4

The Master said, "It is virtuous manners which constitute the excellence
of a neighborhood. If a man in selecting a residence do not fix on
one where such prevail, how can he be wise?" 

The Master said, "Those who are without virtue cannot abide long either
in a condition of poverty and hardship, or in a condition of enjoyment.
The virtuous rest in virtue; the wise desire virtue." 

The Master said, "It is only the truly virtuous man, who can love,
or who can hate, others." 

The Master said, "If the will be set on virtue, there will be no practice
of wickedness." 

The Master said, "Riches and honors are what men desire. If they cannot
be obtained in the proper way, they should not be held. Poverty and
meanness are what men dislike. If they cannot be avoided in the proper
way, they should not be avoided. 

"If a superior man abandon virtue, how can he fulfill the requirements
of that name? 

"The superior man does not, even for the space of a single meal, act
contrary to virtue. In moments of haste, he cleaves to it. In seasons
of danger, he cleaves to it." 

The Master said, "I have not seen a person who loved virtue, or one
who hated what was not virtuous. He who loved virtue, would esteem
nothing above it. He who hated what is not virtuous, would practice
virtue in such a way that he would not allow anything that is not
virtuous to approach his person. 

"Is any one able for one day to apply his strength to virtue? I have
not seen the case in which his strength would be insufficient.

"Should there possibly be any such case, I have not seen it."

The Master said, "The faults of men are characteristic of the class
to which they belong. By observing a man's faults, it may be known
that he is virtuous." 

The Master said, "If a man in the morning hear the right way, he may
die in the evening hear regret." 

The Master said, "A scholar, whose mind is set on truth, and who is
ashamed of bad clothes and bad food, is not fit to be discoursed with."

The Master said, "The superior man, in the world, does not set his
mind either for anything, or against anything; what is right he will

The Master said, "The superior man thinks of virtue; the small man
thinks of comfort. The superior man thinks of the sanctions of law;
the small man thinks of favors which he may receive." 

The Master said: "He who acts with a constant view to his own advantage
will be much murmured against." 

The Master said, "If a prince is able to govern his kingdom with the
complaisance proper to the rules of propriety, what difficulty will
he have? If he cannot govern it with that complaisance, what has he
to do with the rules of propriety?" 

The Master said, "A man should say, I am not concerned that I have
no place, I am concerned how I may fit myself for one. I am not concerned
that I am not known, I seek to be worthy to be known." 

The Master said, "Shan, my doctrine is that of an all-pervading unity."
The disciple Tsang replied, "Yes." 

The Master went out, and the other disciples asked, saying, "What
do his words mean?" Tsang said, "The doctrine of our master is to
be true to the principles-of our nature and the benevolent exercise
of them to others,-this and nothing more." 

The Master said, "The mind of the superior man is conversant with
righteousness; the mind of the mean man is conversant with gain."

The Master said, "When we see men of worth, we should think of equaling
them; when we see men of a contrary character, we should turn inwards
and examine ourselves." 

The Master said, "In serving his parents, a son may remonstrate with
them, but gently; when he sees that they do not incline to follow
his advice, he shows an increased degree of reverence, but does not
abandon his purpose; and should they punish him, he does not allow
himself to murmur." 

The Master said, "While his parents are alive, the son may not go
abroad to a distance. If he does go abroad, he must have a fixed place
to which he goes." 

The Master said, "If the son for three years does not alter from the
way of his father, he may be called filial." 

The Master said, "The years of parents may by no means not be kept
in the memory, as an occasion at once for joy and for fear."

The Master said, "The reason why the ancients did not readily give
utterance to their words, was that they feared lest their actions
should not come up to them." 

The Master said, "The cautious seldom err." 
The Master said, "The superior man wishes to be slow in his speech
and earnest in his conduct." 

The Master said, "Virtue is not left to stand alone. He who practices
it will have neighbors." 

Tsze-yu said, "In serving a prince, frequent remonstrances lead to
disgrace. Between friends, frequent reproofs make the friendship distant."

Part 5

The Master said of Kung-ye Ch'ang that he might be wived; although
he was put in bonds, he had not been guilty of any crime. Accordingly,
he gave him his own daughter to wife. 

Of Nan Yung he said that if the country were well governed he would
not be out of office, and if it were in governed, he would escape
punishment and disgrace. He gave him the daughter of his own elder
brother to wife. 

The Master said of Tsze-chien, "Of superior virtue indeed is such
a man! If there were not virtuous men in Lu, how could this man have
acquired this character?" 

Tsze-kung asked, "What do you say of me, Ts'ze!" The Master said,
"You are a utensil." "What utensil?" "A gemmed sacrificial utensil."

Some one said, "Yung is truly virtuous, but he is not ready with his

The Master said, "What is the good of being ready with the tongue?
They who encounter men with smartness of speech for the most part
procure themselves hatred. I know not whether he be truly virtuous,
but why should he show readiness of the tongue?" 

The Master was wishing Ch'i-tiao K'ai to enter an official employment.
He replied, "I am not yet able to rest in the assurance of this."
The Master was pleased. 

The Master said, "My doctrines make no way. I will get upon a raft,
and float about on the sea. He that will accompany me will be Yu,
I dare say." Tsze-lu hearing this was glad, upon which the Master
said, "Yu is fonder of daring than I am. He does not exercise his
judgment upon matters." 

Mang Wu asked about Tsze-lu, whether he was perfectly virtuous. The
Master said, "I do not know." 

He asked again, when the Master replied, "In a kingdom of a thousand
chariots, Yu might be employed to manage the military levies, but
I do not know whether he be perfectly virtuous." 

"And what do you say of Ch'iu?" The Master replied, "In a city of
a thousand families, or a clan of a hundred chariots, Ch'iu might
be employed as governor, but I do not know whether he is perfectly

"What do you say of Ch'ih?" The Master replied, "With his sash girt
and standing in a court, Ch'ih might be employed to converse with
the visitors and guests, but I do not know whether he is perfectly

The Master said to Tsze-kung, "Which do you consider superior, yourself
or Hui?" 

Tsze-kung replied, "How dare I compare myself with Hui? Hui hears
one point and knows all about a subject; I hear one point, and know
a second." 

The Master said, "You are not equal to him. I grant you, you are not
equal to him." 

Tsai Yu being asleep during the daytime, the Master said, "Rotten
wood cannot be carved; a wall of dirty earth will not receive the
trowel. This Yu,-what is the use of my reproving him?" 

The Master said, "At first, my way with men was to hear their words,
and give them credit for their conduct. Now my way is to hear their
words, and look at their conduct. It is from Yu that I have learned
to make this change." 

The Master said, "I have not seen a firm and unbending man." Some
one replied, "There is Shan Ch'ang." "Ch'ang," said the Master, "is
under the influence of his passions; how can he be pronounced firm
and unbending?" 

Tsze-kung said, "What I do not wish men to do to me, I also wish not
to do to men." The Master said, "Ts'ze, you have not attained to that."

Tsze-kung said, "The Master's personal displays of his principles
and ordinary descriptions of them may be heard. His discourses about
man's nature, and the way of Heaven, cannot be heard." 

When Tsze-lu heard anything, if he had not yet succeeded in carrying
it into practice, he was only afraid lest he should hear something

Tsze-kung asked, saying, "On what ground did Kung-wan get that title
of Wan?" 

The Master said, "He was of an active nature and yet fond of learning,
and he was not ashamed to ask and learn of his inferiors!-On these
grounds he has been styled Wan." 

The Master said of Tsze-ch'an that he had four of the characteristics
of a superior man-in his conduct of himself, he was humble; in serving
his superior, he was respectful; in nourishing the people, he was
kind; in ordering the people, he was just." 

The Master said, "Yen P'ing knew well how to maintain friendly intercourse.
The acquaintance might be long, but he showed the same respect as
at first." 

The Master said, "Tsang Wan kept a large tortoise in a house, on the
capitals of the pillars of which he had hills made, and with representations
of duckweed on the small pillars above the beams supporting the rafters.-Of
what sort was his wisdom?" 

Tsze-chang asked, saying, "The minister Tsze-wan thrice took office,
and manifested no joy in his countenance. Thrice he retired from office,
and manifested no displeasure. He made it a point to inform the new
minister of the way in which he had conducted the government; what
do you say of him?" The Master replied. "He was loyal." "Was he perfectly
virtuous?" "I do not know. How can he be pronounced perfectly virtuous?"

Tsze-chang proceeded, "When the officer Ch'ui killed the prince of
Ch'i, Ch'an Wan, though he was the owner of forty horses, abandoned
them and left the country. Coming to another state, he said, 'They
are here like our great officer, Ch'ui,' and left it. He came to a
second state, and with the same observation left it also;-what do
you say of him?" The Master replied, "He was pure." "Was he perfectly
virtuous?" "I do not know. How can he be pronounced perfectly virtuous?"

Chi Wan thought thrice, and then acted. When the Master was informed
of it, he said, "Twice may do." 

The Master said, "When good order prevailed in his country, Ning Wu
acted the part of a wise man. When his country was in disorder, he
acted the part of a stupid man. Others may equal his wisdom, but they
cannot equal his stupidity." 

When the Master was in Ch'an, he said, "Let me return! Let me return!
The little children of my school are ambitious and too hasty. They
are accomplished and complete so far, but they do not know how to
restrict and shape themselves." 

The Master said, "Po-i and Shu-ch'i did not keep the former wickednesses
of men in mind, and hence the resentments directed towards them were

The Master said, "Who says of Weishang Kao that he is upright? One
begged some vinegar of him, and he begged it of a neighbor and gave
it to the man." 

The Master said, "Fine words, an insinuating appearance, and excessive
respect;-Tso Ch'iu-ming was ashamed of them. I also am ashamed of
them. To conceal resentment against a person, and appear friendly
with him;-Tso Ch'iu-ming was ashamed of such conduct. I also am ashamed
of it." 

Yen Yuan and Chi Lu being by his side, the Master said to them, "Come,
let each of you tell his wishes." 

Tsze-lu said, "I should like, having chariots and horses, and light
fur clothes, to share them with my friends, and though they should
spoil them, I would not be displeased." 

Yen Yuan said, "I should like not to boast of my excellence, nor to
make a display of my meritorious deeds." 

Tsze-lu then said, "I should like, sir, to hear your wishes." The
Master said, "They are, in regard to the aged, to give them rest;
in regard to friends, to show them sincerity; in regard to the young,
to treat them tenderly." 

The Master said, "It is all over. I have not yet seen one who could
perceive his faults, and inwardly accuse himself." 

The Master said, "In a hamlet of ten families, there may be found
one honorable and sincere as I am, but not so fond of learning."

Part 6

The Master said, "There is Yung!-He might occupy the place of a prince."

Chung-kung asked about Tsze-sang Po-tsze. The Master said, "He may
pass. He does not mind small matters." 

Chung-kung said, "If a man cherish in himself a reverential feeling
of the necessity of attention to business, though he may be easy in
small matters in his government of the people, that may be allowed.
But if he cherish in himself that easy feeling, and also carry it
out in his practice, is not such an easymode of procedure excessive?"

The Master said, "Yung's words are right." 
The Duke Ai asked which of the disciples loved to learn.

Confucius replied to him, "There was Yen Hui; he loved to learn. He
did not transfer his anger; he did not repeat a fault. Unfortunately,
his appointed time was short and he died; and now there is not such
another. I have not yet heard of any one who loves to learn as he

Tsze-hwa being employed on a mission to Ch'i, the disciple Zan requested
grain for his mother. The Master said, "Give her a fu." Yen requested
more. "Give her a yi," said the Master. Yen gave her five ping.

The Master said, "When Ch'ih was proceeding to Ch'i, he had fat horses
to his carriage, and wore light furs. I have heard that a superior
man helps the distressed, but does not add to the wealth of the rich."

Yuan Sze being made governor of his town by the Master, he gave him
nine hundred measures of grain, but Sze declined them. 

The Master said, "Do not decline them. May you not give them away
in the neighborhoods, hamlets, towns, and villages?" 

The Master, speaking of Chung-kung, said, "If the calf of a brindled
cow be red and homed, although men may not wish to use it, would the
spirits of the mountains and rivers put it aside?" 

The Master said, "Such was Hui that for three months there would be
nothing in his mind contrary to perfect virtue. The others may attain
to this on some days or in some months, but nothing more."

Chi K'ang asked about Chung-yu, whether he was fit to be employed
as an officer of government. The Master said, "Yu is a man of decision;
what difficulty would he find in being an officer of government?"
K'ang asked, "Is Ts'ze fit to be employed as an officer of government?"
and was answered, "Ts'ze is a man of intelligence; what difficulty
would he find in being an officer of government?" And to the same
question about Ch'iu the Master gave the same reply, saying, "Ch'iu
is a man of various ability." 

The chief of the Chi family sent to ask Min Tsze-ch'ien to be governor
of Pi. Min Tszech'ien said, "Decline the offer for me politely. If
any one come again to me with a second invitation, I shall be obliged
to go and live on the banks of the Wan." 

Po-niu being ill, the Master went to ask for him. He took hold of
his hand through the window, and said, "It is killing him. It is the
appointment of Heaven, alas! That such a man should have such a sickness!
That such a man should have such a sickness!" 

The Master said, "Admirable indeed was the virtue of Hui! With a single
bamboo dish of rice, a single gourd dish of drink, and living in his
mean narrow lane, while others could not have endured the distress,
he did not allow his joy to be affected by it. Admirable indeed was
the virtue of Hui!" 

Yen Ch'iu said, "It is not that I do not delight in your doctrines,
but my strength is insufficient." The Master said, "Those whose strength
is insufficient give over in the middle of the way but now you limit

The Master said to Tsze-hsia, "Do you be a scholar after the style
of the superior man, and not after that of the mean man."

Tsze-yu being governor of Wu-ch'ang, the Master said to him, "Have
you got good men there?" He answered, "There is Tan-t'ai Miehming,
who never in walking takes a short cut, and never comes to my office,
excepting on public business." 

The Master said, "Mang Chih-fan does not boast of his merit. Being
in the rear on an occasion of flight, when they were about to enter
the gate, he whipped up his horse, saying, "It is not that I dare
to be last. My horse would not advance." 

The Master said, "Without the specious speech of the litanist T'o
and the beauty of the prince Chao of Sung, it is difficult to escape
in the present age." 

The Master said, "Who can go out but by the door? How is it that men
will not walk according to these ways?" 

The Master said, "Where the solid qualities are in excess of accomplishments,
we have rusticity; where the accomplishments are in excess of the
solid qualities, we have the manners of a clerk. When the accomplishments
and solid qualities are equally blended, we then have the man of virtue."

The Master said, "Man is born for uprightness. If a man lose his uprightness,
and yet live, his escape from death is the effect of mere good fortune."

The Master said, "They who know the truth are not equal to those who
love it, and they who love it are not equal to those who delight in

The Master said, "To those whose talents are above mediocrity, the
highest subjects may be announced. To those who are below mediocrity,
the highest subjects may not be announced." 

Fan Ch'ih asked what constituted wisdom. The Master said, "To give
one's self earnestly to the duties due to men, and, while respecting
spiritual beings, to keep aloof from them, may be called wisdom."
He asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "The man of virtue
makes the difficulty to be overcome his first business, and success
only a subsequent consideration;-this may be called perfect virtue."

The Master said, "The wise find pleasure in water; the virtuous find
pleasure in hills. The wise are active; the virtuous are tranquil.
The wise are joyful; the virtuous are long-lived." 

The Master said, "Ch'i, by one change, would come to the State of
Lu. Lu, by one change, would come to a State where true principles

The Master said, "A cornered vessel without corners-a strange cornered
vessel! A strange cornered vessel!" 

Tsai Wo asked, saying, "A benevolent man, though it be told him,-'There
is a man in the well" will go in after him, I suppose." Confucius
said, "Why should he do so?" A superior man may be made to go to the
well, but he cannot be made to go down into it. He may be imposed
upon, but he cannot be fooled." 

The Master said, "The superior man, extensively studying all learning,
and keeping himself under the restraint of the rules of propriety,
may thus likewise not overstep what is right." 

The Master having visited Nan-tsze, Tsze-lu was displeased, on which
the Master swore, saying, "Wherein I have done improperly, may Heaven
reject me, may Heaven reject me!" 

The Master said, "Perfect is the virtue which is according to the
Constant Mean! Rare for a long time has been its practice among the

Tsze-kung said, "Suppose the case of a man extensively conferring
benefits on the people, and able to assist all, what would you say
of him? Might he be called perfectly virtuous?" The Master said, "Why
speak only of virtue in connection with him? Must he not have the
qualities of a sage? Even Yao and Shun were still solicitous about

"Now the man of perfect virtue, wishing to be established himself,
seeks also to establish others; wishing to be enlarged himself, he
seeks also to enlarge others. 

"To be able to judge of others by what is nigh in ourselves;-this
may be called the art of virtue." 



Part 7 

The Master said, "A transmitter and not a maker, believing in and
loving the ancients, I venture to compare myself with our old P'ang."

The Master said, "The silent treasuring up of knowledge; learning
without satiety; and instructing others without being wearied:-which
one of these things belongs to me?" 

The Master said, "The leaving virtue without proper cultivation; the
not thoroughly discussing what is learned; not being able to move
towards righteousness of which a knowledge is gained; and not being
able to change what is not good:-these are the things which occasion
me solicitude." 

When the Master was unoccupied with business, his manner was easy,
and he looked pleased. 

The Master said, "Extreme is my decay. For a long time, I have not
dreamed, as I was wont to do, that I saw the duke of Chau."

The Master said, "Let the will be set on the path of duty.

"Let every attainment in what is good be firmly grasped.

"Let perfect virtue be accorded with. 
"Let relaxation and enjoyment be found in the polite arts."

The Master said, "From the man bringing his bundle of dried flesh
for my teaching upwards, I have never refused instruction to any one."

The Master said, "I do not open up the truth to one who is not eager
to get knowledge, nor help out any one who is not anxious to explain
himself. When I have presented one corner of a subject to any one,
and he cannot from it learn the other three, I do not repeat my lesson."

When the Master was eating by the side of a mourner, he never ate
to the full. 

He did not sing on the same day in which he had been weeping.

The Master said to Yen Yuan, "When called to office, to undertake
its duties; when not so called, to he retired;-it is only I and you
who have attained to this." 

Tsze-lu said, "If you had the conduct of the armies of a great state,
whom would you have to act with you?" 

The Master said, "I would not have him to act with me, who will unarmed
attack a tiger, or cross a river without a boat, dying without any
regret. My associate must be the man who proceeds to action full of
solicitude, who is fond of adjusting his plans, and then carries them
into execution." 

The Master said, "If the search for riches is sure to be successful,
though I should become a groom with whip in hand to get them, I will
do so. As the search may not be successful, I will follow after that
which I love." 

The things in reference to which the Master exercised the greatest
caution were-fasting, war, and sickness. 

When the Master was in Ch'i, he heard the Shao, and for three months
did not know the taste of flesh. "I did not think'" he said, "that
music could have been made so excellent as this." 

Yen Yu said, "Is our Master for the ruler of Wei?" Tsze-kung said,
"Oh! I will ask him." 

He went in accordingly, and said, "What sort of men were Po-i and
Shu-ch'i?" "They were ancient worthies," said the Master. "Did they
have any repinings because of their course?" The Master again replied,
"They sought to act virtuously, and they did so; what was there for
them to repine about?" On this, Tsze-kung went out and said, "Our
Master is not for him." 

The Master said, "With coarse rice to eat, with water to drink, and
my bended arm for a pillow;-I have still joy in the midst of these
things. Riches and honors acquired by unrighteousness, are to me as
a floating cloud." 

The Master said, "If some years were added to my life, I would give
fifty to the study of the Yi, and then I might come to be without
great faults." 

The Master's frequent themes of discourse were-the Odes, the History,
and the maintenance of the Rules of Propriety. On all these he frequently

The Duke of Sheh asked Tsze-lu about Confucius, and Tsze-lu did not
answer him. 

The Master said, "Why did you not say to him,-He is simply a man,
who in his eager pursuit of knowledge forgets his food, who in the
joy of its attainment forgets his sorrows, and who does not perceive
that old age is coming on?" 

The Master said, "I am not one who was born in the possession of knowledge;
I am one who is fond of antiquity, and earnest in seeking it there."

The subjects on which the Master did not talk, were-extraordinary
things, feats of strength, disorder, and spiritual beings.

The Master said, "When I walk along with two others, they may serve
me as my teachers. I will select their good qualities and follow them,
their bad qualities and avoid them." 

The Master said, "Heaven produced the virtue that is in me. Hwan T'ui-what
can he do to me?" 

The Master said, "Do you think, my disciples, that I have any concealments?
I conceal nothing from you. There is nothing which I do that is not
shown to you, my disciples; that is my way." 

There were four things which the Master taught,-letters, ethics, devotion
of soul, and truthfulness. 

The Master said, "A sage it is not mine to see; could I see a man
of real talent and virtue, that would satisfy me." 

The Master said, "A good man it is not mine to see; could I see a
man possessed of constancy, that would satisfy me. 

"Having not and yet affecting to have, empty and yet affecting to
be full, straitened and yet affecting to be at ease:-it is difficult
with such characteristics to have constancy." 

The Master angled,-but did not use a net. He shot,-but not at birds

The Master said, "There may be those who act without knowing why.
I do not do so. Hearing much and selecting what is good and following
it; seeing much and keeping it in memory: this is the second style
of knowledge." 

It was difficult to talk profitably and reputably with the people
of Hu-hsiang, and a lad of that place having had an interview with
the Master, the disciples doubted. 

The Master said, "I admit people's approach to me without committing
myself as to what they may do when they have retired. Why must one
be so severe? If a man purify himself to wait upon me, I receive him
so purified, without guaranteeing his past conduct." 

The Master said, "Is virtue a thing remote? I wish to be virtuous,
and lo! virtue is at hand." 

The minister of crime of Ch'an asked whether the duke Chao knew propriety,
and Confucius said, "He knew propriety." 

Confucius having retired, the minister bowed to Wu-ma Ch'i to come
forward, and said, "I have heard that the superior man is not a partisan.
May the superior man be a partisan also? The prince married a daughter
of the house of WU, of the same surname with himself, and called her,-'The
elder Tsze of Wu.' If the prince knew propriety, who does not know

Wu-ma Ch'i reported these remarks, and the Master said, "I am fortunate!
If I have any errors, people are sure to know them." 

When the Master was in company with a person who was singing, if he
sang well, he would make him repeat the song, while he accompanied
it with his own voice. 

The Master said, "In letters I am perhaps equal to other men, but
the character of the superior man, carrying out in his conduct what
he professes, is what I have not yet attained to." 

The Master said, "The sage and the man of perfect virtue;-how dare
I rank myself with them? It may simply be said of me, that I strive
to become such without satiety, and teach others without weariness."
Kung-hsi Hwa said, "This is just what we, the disciples, cannot imitate
you in." 

The Master being very sick, Tsze-lu asked leave to pray for him. He
said, "May such a thing be done?" Tsze-lu replied, "It may. In the
Eulogies it is said, 'Prayer has been made for thee to the spirits
of the upper and lower worlds.'" The Master said, "My praying has
been for a long time." 

The Master said, "Extravagance leads to insubordination, and parsimony
to meanness. It is better to be mean than to be insubordinate."

The Master said, "The superior man is satisfied and composed; the
mean man is always full of distress." 

The Master was mild, and yet dignified; majestic, and yet not fierce;
respectful, and yet easy. 

Part 8

The Master said, "T'ai-po may be said to have reached the highest
point of virtuous action. Thrice he declined the kingdom, and the
people in ignorance of his motives could not express their approbation
of his conduct." 

The Master said, "Respectfulness, without the rules of propriety,
becomes laborious bustle; carefulness, without the rules of propriety,
becomes timidity; boldness, without the rules of propriety, becomes
insubordination; straightforwardness, without the rules of propriety,
becomes rudeness. 

"When those who are in high stations perform well all their duties
to their relations, the people are aroused to virtue. When old friends
are not neglected by them, the people are preserved from meanness."

The philosopher Tsang being ill, he cared to him the disciples of
his school, and said, "Uncover my feet, uncover my hands. It is said
in the Book of Poetry, 'We should be apprehensive and cautious, as
if on the brink of a deep gulf, as if treading on thin ice, I and
so have I been. Now and hereafter, I know my escape from all injury
to my person. O ye, my little children." 

The philosopher Tsang being ill, Meng Chang went to ask how he was.

Tsang said to him, "When a bird is about to die, its notes are mournful;
when a man is about to die, his words are good. 

"There are three principles of conduct which the man of high rank
should consider specially important:-that in his deportment and manner
he keep from violence and heedlessness; that in regulating his countenance
he keep near to sincerity; and that in his words and tones he keep
far from lowness and impropriety. As to such matters as attending
to the sacrificial vessels, there are the proper officers for them."

The philosopher Tsang said, "Gifted with ability, and yet putting
questions to those who were not so; possessed of much, and yet putting
questions to those possessed of little; having, as though he had not;
full, and yet counting himself as empty; offended against, and yet
entering into no altercation; formerly I had a friend who pursued
this style of conduct." 

The philosopher Tsang said, "Suppose that there is an individual who
can be entrusted with the charge of a young orphan prince, and can
be commissioned with authority over a state of a hundred li, and whom
no emergency however great can drive from his principles:-is such
a man a superior man? He is a superior man indeed." 

The philosopher Tsang said, "The officer may not be without breadth
of mind and vigorous endurance. His burden is heavy and his course
is long. 

"Perfect virtue is the burden which he considers it is his to sustain;-is
it not heavy? Only with death does his course stop;-is it not long?

The Master said, "It is by the Odes that the mind is aroused.

"It is by the Rules of Propriety that the character is established.

"It is from Music that the finish is received." 
The Master said, "The people may be made to follow a path of action,
but they may not be made to understand it." 

The Master said, "The man who is fond of daring and is dissatisfied
with poverty, will proceed to insubordination. So will the man who
is not virtuous, when you carry your dislike of him to an extreme."

The Master said, "Though a man have abilities as admirable as those
of the Duke of Chau, yet if he be proud and niggardly, those other
things are really not worth being looked at." 

The Master said, "It is not easy to find a man who has learned for
three years without coming to be good." 

The Master said, "With sincere faith he unites the love of learning;
holding firm to death, he is perfecting the excellence of his course.

"Such an one will not enter a tottering state, nor dwell in a disorganized
one. When right principles of government prevail in the kingdom, he
will show himself; when they are prostrated, he will keep concealed.

"When a country is well governed, poverty and a mean condition are
things to be ashamed of. When a country is ill governed, riches and
honor are things to be ashamed of." 

The Master said, "He who is not in any particular office has nothing
to do with plans for the administration of its duties." 

The Master said, "When the music master Chih first entered on his
office, the finish of the Kwan Tsu was magnificent;-how it filled
the ears!" 

The Master said, "Ardent and yet not upright, stupid and yet not attentive;
simple and yet not sincere:-such persons I do not understand."

The Master said, "Learn as if you could not reach your object, and
were always fearing also lest you should lose it." 

The Master said, "How majestic was the manner in which Shun and Yu
held possession of the empire, as if it were nothing to them!

The Master said, "Great indeed was Yao as a sovereign! How majestic
was he! It is only Heaven that is grand, and only Yao corresponded
to it. How vast was his virtue! The people could find no name for

"How majestic was he in the works which he accomplished! How glorious
in the elegant regulations which he instituted!" 

Shun had five ministers, and the empire was well governed.

King Wu said, "I have ten able ministers." 
Confucius said, "Is not the saying that talents are difficult to find,
true? Only when the dynasties of T'ang and Yu met, were they more
abundant than in this of Chau, yet there was a woman among them. The
able ministers were no more than nine men. 

"King Wan possessed two of the three parts of the empire, and with
those he served the dynasty of Yin. The virtue of the house of Chau
may be said to have reached the highest point indeed." 

The Master said, "I can find no flaw in the character of Yu. He used
himself coarse food and drink, but displayed the utmost filial piety
towards the spirits. His ordinary garments were poor, but he displayed
the utmost elegance in his sacrificial cap and apron. He lived in
a low, mean house, but expended all his strength on the ditches and
water channels. I can find nothing like a flaw in Yu." 

Part 9

The subjects of which the Master seldom spoke were-profitableness,
and also the appointments of Heaven, and perfect virtue.

A man of the village of Ta-hsiang said, "Great indeed is the philosopher
K'ung! His learning is extensive, and yet he does not render his name
famous by any particular thing." 

The Master heard the observation, and said to his disciples, "What
shall I practice? Shall I practice charioteering, or shall I practice
archery? I will practice charioteering." 

The Master said, "The linen cap is that prescribed by the rules of
ceremony, but now a silk one is worn. It is economical, and I follow
the common practice. 

"The rules of ceremony prescribe the bowing below the hall, but now
the practice is to bow only after ascending it. That is arrogant.
I continue to bow below the hall, though I oppose the common practice."

There were four things from which the Master was entirely free. He
had no foregone conclusions, no arbitrary predeterminations, no obstinacy,
and no egoism. 

The Master was put in fear in K'wang. 
He said, "After the death of King Wan, was not the cause of truth
lodged here in me? 

"If Heaven had wished to let this cause of truth perish, then I, a
future mortal! should not have got such a relation to that cause.
While Heaven does not let the cause of truth perish, what can the
people of K'wang do to me?" 

A high officer asked Tsze-kung, saying, "May we not say that your
Master is a sage? How various is his ability!" 

Tsze-kung said, "Certainly Heaven has endowed him unlimitedly. He
is about a sage. And, moreover, his ability is various."

The Master heard of the conversation and said, "Does the high officer
know me? When I was young, my condition was low, and I acquired my
ability in many things, but they were mean matters. Must the superior
man have such variety of ability? He does not need variety of ability.
Lao said, "The Master said, 'Having no official employment, I acquired
many arts.'" 

The Master said, "Am I indeed possessed of knowledge? I am not knowing.
But if a mean person, who appears quite empty-like, ask anything of
me, I set it forth from one end to the other, and exhaust it."

The Master said, "The Fang bird does not come; the river sends forth
no map:-it is all over with me!" 

When the Master saw a person in a mourning dress, or any one with
the cap and upper and lower garments of full dress, or a blind person,
on observing them approaching, though they were younger than himself,
he would rise up, and if he had to pass by them, he would do so hastily.

Yen Yuan, in admiration of the Master's doctrines, sighed and said,
"I looked up to them, and they seemed to become more high; I tried
to penetrate them, and they seemed to become more firm; I looked at
them before me, and suddenly they seemed to be behind. 

"The Master, by orderly method, skillfully leads men on. He enlarged
my mind with learning, and taught me the restraints of propriety.

"When I wish to give over the study of his doctrines, I cannot do
so, and having exerted all my ability, there seems something to stand
right up before me; but though I wish to follow and lay hold of it,
I really find no way to do so." 

The Master being very ill, Tsze-lu wished the disciples to act as
ministers to him. 

During a remission of his illness, he said, "Long has the conduct
of Yu been deceitful! By pretending to have ministers when I have
them not, whom should I impose upon? Should I impose upon Heaven?

"Moreover, than that I should die in the hands of ministers, is it
not better that I should die in the hands of you, my disciples? And
though I may not get a great burial, shall I die upon the road?"

Tsze-kung said, "There is a beautiful gem here. Should I lay it up
in a case and keep it? or should I seek for a good price and sell
it?" The Master said, "Sell it! Sell it! But I would wait for one
to offer the price." 

The Master was wishing to go and live among the nine wild tribes of
the east. 

Some one said, "They are rude. How can you do such a thing?" The Master
said, "If a superior man dwelt among them, what rudeness would there

The Master said, "I returned from Wei to Lu, and then the music was
reformed, and the pieces in the Royal songs and Praise songs all found
their proper places." 

The Master said, "Abroad, to serve the high ministers and nobles;
at home, to serve one's father and elder brothers; in all duties to
the dead, not to dare not to exert one's self; and not to be overcome
of wine:-which one of these things do I attain to?" 

The Master standing by a stream, said, "It passes on just like this,
not ceasing day or night!" 

The Master said, "I have not seen one who loves virtue as he loves

The Master said, "The prosecution of learning may be compared to what
may happen in raising a mound. If there want but one basket of earth
to complete the work, and I stop, the stopping is my own work. It
may be compared to throwing down the earth on the level ground. Though
but one basketful is thrown at a time, the advancing with it my own
going forward." 

The Master said, "Never flagging when I set forth anything to him;-ah!
that is Hui." The Master said of Yen Yuan, "Alas! I saw his constant
advance. I never saw him stop in his progress." 

The Master said, "There are cases in which the blade springs, but
the plant does not go on to flower! There are cases where it flowers
but fruit is not subsequently produced!" 

The Master said, "A youth is to be regarded with respect. How do we
know that his future will not be equal to our present? If he reach
the age of forty or fifty, and has not made himself heard of, then
indeed he will not be worth being regarded with respect."

The Master said, "Can men refuse to assent to the words of strict
admonition? But it is reforming the conduct because of them which
is valuable. Can men refuse to be pleased with words of gentle advice?
But it is unfolding their aim which is valuable. If a man be pleased
with these words, but does not unfold their aim, and assents to those,
but does not reform his conduct, I can really do nothing with him."

The Master said, "Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.
Have no friends not equal to yourself. When you have faults, do not
fear to abandon them." 

The Master said, "The commander of the forces of a large state may
be carried off, but the will of even a common man cannot be taken
from him." 

The Master said, "Dressed himself in a tattered robe quilted with
hemp, yet standing by the side of men dressed in furs, and not ashamed;-ah!
it is Yu who is equal to this! 

"He dislikes none, he covets nothing;-what can he do but what is good!"

Tsze-lu kept continually repeating these words of the ode, when the
Master said, "Those things are by no means sufficient to constitute
perfect excellence." 

The Master said, "When the year becomes cold, then we know how the
pine and the cypress are the last to lose their leaves."

The Master said, "The wise are free from perplexities; the virtuous
from anxiety; and the bold from fear." 

The Master said, "There are some with whom we may study in common,
but we shall find them unable to go along with us to principles. Perhaps
we may go on with them to principles, but we shall find them unable
to get established in those along with us. Or if we may get so established
along with them, we shall find them unable to weigh occurring events
along with us." 

"How the flowers of the aspen-plum flutter and turn! Do I not think
of you? But your house is distant." 

The Master said, "It is the want of thought about it. How is it distant?"

Part 10

Confucius, in his village, looked simple and sincere, and as if he
were not able to speak. 

When he was in the prince's ancestral temple, or in the court, he
spoke minutely on every point, but cautiously. 

When he was waiting at court, in speaking with the great officers
of the lower grade, he spoke freely, but in a straightforward manner;
in speaking with those of the higher grade, he did so blandly, but

When the ruler was present, his manner displayed respectful uneasiness;
it was grave, but self-possessed. 

When the prince called him to employ him in the reception of a visitor,
his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to move forward with

He inclined himself to the other officers among whom he stood, moving
his left or right arm, as their position required, but keeping the
skirts of his robe before and behind evenly adjusted. 

He hastened forward, with his arms like the wings of a bird.

When the guest had retired, he would report to the prince, "The visitor
is not turning round any more." 

When he entered the palace gate, he seemed to bend his body, as if
it were not sufficient to admit him. 

When he was standing, he did not occupy the middle of the gateway;
when he passed in or out, he did not tread upon the threshold.

When he was passing the vacant place of the prince, his countenance
appeared to change, and his legs to bend under him, and his words
came as if he hardly had breath to utter them. 

He ascended the reception hall, holding up his robe with both his
hands, and his body bent; holding in his breath also, as if he dared
not breathe. 

When he came out from the audience, as soon as he had descended one
step, he began to relax his countenance, and had a satisfied look.
When he had got the bottom of the steps, he advanced rapidly to his
place, with his arms like wings, and on occupying it, his manner still
showed respectful uneasiness. 

When he was carrying the scepter of his ruler, he seemed to bend his
body, as if he were not able to bear its weight. He did not hold it
higher than the position of the hands in making a bow, nor lower than
their position in giving anything to another. His countenance seemed
to change, and look apprehensive, and he dragged his feet along as
if they were held by something to the ground. 

In presenting the presents with which he was charged, he wore a placid

At his private audience, he looked highly pleased. 
The superior man did not use a deep purple, or a puce color, in the
ornaments of his dress. 

Even in his undress, he did not wear anything of a red or reddish

In warm weather, he had a single garment either of coarse or fine
texture, but he wore it displayed over an inner garment.

Over lamb's fur he wore a garment of black; over fawn's fur one of
white; and over fox's fur one of yellow. 

The fur robe of his undress was long, with the right sleeve short.

He required his sleeping dress to be half as long again as his body.

When staying at home, he used thick furs of the fox or the badger.

When he put off mourning, he wore all the appendages of the girdle.

His undergarment, except when it was required to be of the curtain
shape, was made of silk cut narrow above and wide below.

He did not wear lamb's fur or a black cap on a visit of condolence.

On the first day of the month he put on his court robes, and presented
himself at court. 

When fasting, he thought it necessary to have his clothes brightly
clean and made of linen cloth. 

When fasting, he thought it necessary to change his food, and also
to change the place where he commonly sat in the apartment.

He did not dislike to have his rice finely cleaned, nor to have his
mince meat cut quite small. 

He did not eat rice which had been injured by heat or damp and turned
sour, nor fish or flesh which was gone. He did not eat what was discolored,
or what was of a bad flavor, nor anything which was ill-cooked, or
was not in season. 

He did not eat meat which was not cut properly, nor what was served
without its proper sauce. 

Though there might be a large quantity of meat, he would not allow
what he took to exceed the due proportion for the rice. It was only
in wine that he laid down no limit for himself, but he did not allow
himself to be confused by it. 

He did not partake of wine and dried meat bought in the market.

He was never without ginger when he ate. He did not eat much.

When he had been assisting at the prince's sacrifice, he did not keep
the flesh which he received overnight. The flesh of his family sacrifice
he did not keep over three days. If kept over three days, people could
not eat it. 

When eating, he did not converse. When in bed, he did not speak.

Although his food might be coarse rice and vegetable soup, he would
offer a little of it in sacrifice with a grave, respectful air.

If his mat was not straight, he did not sit on it. 
When the villagers were drinking together, upon those who carried
staffs going out, he also went out immediately after. 

When the villagers were going through their ceremonies to drive away
pestilential influences, he put on his court robes and stood on the
eastern steps. 

When he was sending complimentary inquiries to any one in another
state, he bowed twice as he escorted the messenger away.

Chi K'ang having sent him a present of physic, he bowed and received
it, saying, "I do not know it. I dare not taste it." 

The stable being burned down, when he was at court, on his return
he said, "Has any man been hurt?" He did not ask about the horses.

When the he would adjust his mat, first taste it, and then give it
away to others. When the prince sent him a gift of undressed meat,
he would have it cooked, and offer it to the spirits of his ancestors.
When the prince sent him a gift of a living animal, he would keep
it alive. 

When he was in attendance on the prince and joining in the entertainment,
the prince only sacrificed. He first tasted everything. 

When he was ill and the prince came to visit him, he had his head
to the east, made his court robes be spread over him, and drew his
girdle across them. 

When the prince's order called him, without waiting for his carriage
to be yoked, he went at once. 

When he entered the ancestral temple of the state, he asked about

When any of his friends died, if he had no relations offices, he would
say, "I will bury him." 

When a friend sent him a present, though it might be a carriage and
horses, he did not bow. 

The only present for which he bowed was that of the flesh of sacrifice.

In bed, he did not lie like a corpse. At home, he did not put on any
formal deportment. 

When he saw any one in a mourning dress, though it might be an acquaintance,
he would change countenance; when he saw any one wearing the cap of
full dress, or a blind person, though he might be in his undress,
he would salute him in a ceremonious manner. 

To any person in mourning he bowed forward to the crossbar of his
carriage; he bowed in the same way to any one bearing the tables of

When he was at an entertainment where there was an abundance of provisions
set before him, he would change countenance and rise up.

On a sudden clap of thunder, or a violent wind, he would change countenance.

When he was about to mount his carriage, he would stand straight,
holding the cord. 

When he was in the carriage, he did not turn his head quite round,
he did not talk hastily, he did not point with his hands.

Seeing the countenance, it instantly rises. It flies round, and by
and by settles. 

The Master said, "There is the hen-pheasant on the hill bridge. At
its season! At its season!" Tsze-lu made a motion to it. Thrice it
smelt him and then rose. 

Part 11

The Master said, "The men of former times in the matters of ceremonies
and music were rustics, it is said, while the men of these latter
times, in ceremonies and music, are accomplished gentlemen.

"If I have occasion to use those things, I follow the men of former

The Master said, "Of those who were with me in Ch'an and Ts'ai, there
are none to be found to enter my door." 

Distinguished for their virtuous principles and practice, there were
Yen Yuan, Min Tsze-ch'ien, Zan Po-niu, and Chung-kung; for their ability
in speech, Tsai Wo and Tsze-kung; for their administrative talents,
Zan Yu and Chi Lu; for their literary acquirements, Tsze-yu and Tsze-hsia.

The Master said, "Hui gives me no assistance. There is nothing that
I say in which he does not delight." 

The Master said, "Filial indeed is Min Tsze-ch'ien! Other people say
nothing of him different from the report of his parents and brothers."

Nan Yung was frequently repeating the lines about a white scepter
stone. Confucius gave him the daughter of his elder brother to wife.

Chi K'ang asked which of the disciples loved to learn. Confucius replied
to him, "There was Yen Hui; he loved to learn. Unfortunately his appointed
time was short, and he died. Now there is no one who loves to learn,
as he did." 

When Yen Yuan died, Yen Lu begged the carriage of the Master to sell
and get an outer shell for his son's coffin. 

The Master said, "Every one calls his son his son, whether he has
talents or has not talents. There was Li; when he died, he had a coffin
but no outer shell. I would not walk on foot to get a shell for him,
because, having followed in the rear of the great officers, it was
not proper that I should walk on foot." 

When Yen Yuan died, the Master said, "Alas! Heaven is destroying me!
Heaven is destroying me!" 

When Yen Yuan died, the Master bewailed him exceedingly, and the disciples
who were with him said, "Master, your grief is excessive!"

"Is it excessive?" said he. "If I am not to mourn bitterly for this
man, for whom should I mourn?" 

When Yen Yuan died, the disciples wished to give him a great funeral,
and the Master said, "You may not do so." 

The disciples did bury him in great style. 
The Master said, "Hui behaved towards me as his father. I have not
been able to treat him as my son. The fault is not mine; it belongs
to you, O disciples." 

Chi Lu asked about serving the spirits of the dead. The Master said,
"While you are not able to serve men, how can you serve their spirits?"
Chi Lu added, "I venture to ask about death?" He was answered, "While
you do not know life, how can you know about death?" 

The disciple Min was standing by his side, looking bland and precise;
Tsze-lu, looking bold and soldierly; Zan Yu and Tsze-kung, with a
free and straightforward manner. The Master was pleased.

He said, "Yu, there!-he will not die a natural death." 
Some parties in Lu were going to take down and rebuild the Long Treasury.

Min Tsze-ch'ien said, "Suppose it were to be repaired after its old
style;-why must it be altered and made anew?" 

The Master said, "This man seldom speaks; when he does, he is sure
to hit the point." 

The Master said, "What has the lute of Yu to do in my door?"

The other disciples began not to respect Tszelu. The Master said,
"Yu has ascended to the hall, though he has not yet passed into the
inner apartments." 

Tsze-kung asked which of the two, Shih or Shang, was the superior.
The Master said, "Shih goes beyond the due mean, and Shang does not
come up to it." 

"Then," said Tsze-kung, "the superiority is with Shih, I suppose."

The Master said, "To go beyond is as wrong as to fall short."

The head of the Chi family was richer than the duke of Chau had been,
and yet Ch'iu collected his imposts for him, and increased his wealth.

The Master said, "He is no disciple of mine. My little children, beat
the drum and assail him." 

Ch'ai is simple. Shan is dull. Shih is specious. Yu is coarse.

The Master said, "There is Hui! He has nearly attained to perfect
virtue. He is often in want. 

"Ts'ze does not acquiesce in the appointments of Heaven, and his goods
are increased by him. Yet his judgments are often correct."

Tsze-chang asked what were the characteristics of the good man. The
Master said, "He does not tread in the footsteps of others, but moreover,
he does not enter the chamber of the sage." 

The Master said, "If, because a man's discourse appears solid and
sincere, we allow him to be a good man, is he really a superior man?
or is his gravity only in appearance?" 

Tsze-lu asked whether he should immediately carry into practice what
he heard. The Master said, "There are your father and elder brothers
to be consulted;-why should you act on that principle of immediately
carrying into practice what you hear?" Zan Yu asked the same, whether
he should immediately carry into practice what he heard, and the Master
answered, "Immediately carry into practice what you hear." Kung-hsi
Hwa said, "Yu asked whether he should carry immediately into practice
what he heard, and you said, 'There are your father and elder brothers
to be consulted.' Ch'iu asked whether he should immediately carry
into practice what he heard, and you said, 'Carry it immediately into
practice.' I, Ch'ih, am perplexed, and venture to ask you for an explanation."
The Master said, "Ch'iu is retiring and slow; therefore I urged him
forward. Yu has more than his own share of energy; therefore I kept
him back." 

The Master was put in fear in K'wang and Yen Yuan fell behind. The
Master, on his rejoining him, said, "I thought you had died." Hui
replied, "While you were alive, how should I presume to die?"

Chi Tsze-zan asked whether Chung Yu and Zan Ch'iu could be called
great ministers. 

The Master said, "I thought you would ask about some extraordinary
individuals, and you only ask about Yu and Ch'iu! 

"What is called a great minister, is one who serves his prince according
to what is right, and when he finds he cannot do so, retires.

"Now, as to Yu and Ch'iu, they may be called ordinary ministers."

Tsze-zan said, "Then they will always follow their chief;-win they?"

The Master said, "In an act of parricide or regicide, they would not
follow him." 

Tsze-lu got Tsze-kao appointed governor of Pi. 
The Master said, "You are injuring a man's son." 
Tsze-lu said, "There are, there, common people and officers; there
are the altars of the spirits of the land and grain. Why must one
read books before he can be considered to have learned?"

The Master said, "It is on this account that I hate your glib-tongued

Tsze-lu, Tsang Hsi, Zan Yu, and Kunghsi Hwa were sitting by the Master.

He said to them, "Though I am a day or so older than you, do not think
of that. 

"From day to day you are saying, 'We are not known.' If some ruler
were to know you, what would you like to do?" 

Tsze-lu hastily and lightly replied, "Suppose the case of a state
of ten thousand chariots; let it be straitened between other large
cities; let it be suffering from invading armies; and to this let
there be added a famine in corn and in all vegetables:-if I were intrusted
with the government of it, in three years' time I could make the people
to be bold, and to recognize the rules of righteous conduct." The
Master smiled at him. 

Turning to Yen Yu, he said, "Ch'iu, what are your wishes?" Ch'iu replied,
"Suppose a state of sixty or seventy li square, or one of fifty or
sixty, and let me have the government of it;-in three years' time,
I could make plenty to abound among the people. As to teaching them
the principles of propriety, and music, I must wait for the rise of
a superior man to do that." 

"What are your wishes, Ch'ih," said the Master next to Kung-hsi Hwa.
Ch'ih replied, "I do not say that my ability extends to these things,
but I should wish to learn them. At the services of the ancestral
temple, and at the audiences of the princes with the sovereign, I
should like, dressed in the dark square-made robe and the black linen
cap, to act as a small assistant." 

Last of all, the Master asked Tsang Hsi, "Tien, what are your wishes?"
Tien, pausing as he was playing on his lute, while it was yet twanging,
laid the instrument aside, and "My wishes," he said, "are different
from the cherished purposes of these three gentlemen." "What harm
is there in that?" said the Master; "do you also, as well as they,
speak out your wishes." Tien then said, "In this, the last month of
spring, with the dress of the season all complete, along with five
or six young men who have assumed the cap, and six or seven boys,
I would wash in the I, enjoy the breeze among the rain altars, and
return home singing." The Master heaved a sigh and said, "I give my
approval to Tien." 

The three others having gone out, Tsang Hsi remained behind, and said,
"What do you think of the words of these three friends?" The Master
replied, "They simply told each one his wishes." 

Hsi pursued, "Master, why did you smile at Yu?" 
He was answered, "The management of a state demands the rules of propriety.
His words were not humble; therefore I smiled at him." 

Hsi again said, "But was it not a state which Ch'iu proposed for himself?"
The reply was, "Yes; did you ever see a territory of sixty or seventy
li or one of fifty or sixty, which was not a state?" 

Once more, Hsi inquired, "And was it not a state which Ch'ih proposed
for himself?" The Master again replied, "Yes; who but princes have
to do with ancestral temples, and with audiences but the sovereign?
If Ch'ih were to be a small assistant in these services, who could
be a great one? 



Part 12

Yen Yuan asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "To subdue one's self
and return to propriety, is perfect virtue. If a man can for one day subdue
himself and return to propriety, an under heaven will ascribe perfect 
virtue to him. Is the practice of perfect virtue from a man himself, or is
it from others?"

Yen Yuan said, "I beg to ask the steps of that process." The Master 
replied, "Look not at what is contrary to propriety; listen not to what is
contrary to propriety; speak not what is contrary to propriety; make no
movement which is contrary to propriety." Yen Yuan then said, "Though I am
deficient in intelligence and vigor, I will make it my business to practice
this lesson."

Chung-kung asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "It is, when you go
abroad, to behave to every one as if you were receiving a great guest; to
employ the people as if you were assisting at a great sacrifice; not to do
to others as you would not wish done to yourself; to have no murmuring
against you in the country, and none in the family." Chung-kung said,
"Though I am deficient in intelligence and vigor, I will make it my
business to practice this lesson."

Sze-ma Niu asked about perfect virtue.
The Master said, "The man of perfect virtue is cautious and slow in his

"Cautious and slow in his speech!" said Niu;-"is this what is meant by
perfect virtue?" The Master said, "When a man feels the difficulty of 
doing, can he be other than cautious and slow in speaking?"

Sze-ma Niu asked about the superior man. The Master said, "The superior man
has neither anxiety nor fear."

"Being without anxiety or fear!" said Nui;"does this constitute what we
call the superior man?"

The Master said, "When internal examination discovers nothing wrong, what
is there to be anxious about, what is there to fear?"

Sze-ma Niu, full of anxiety, said, "Other men all have their brothers, I
only have not."

Tsze-hsia said to him, "There is the following saying which I have 
heard-'Death and life have their determined appointment; riches and honors 
depend upon Heaven.'

"Let the superior man never fail reverentially to order his own conduct,
and let him be respectful to others and observant of propriety:-then all
within the four seas will be his brothers. What has the superior man to do
with being distressed because he has no brothers?"

Tsze-chang asked what constituted intelligence. The Master said, "He with
whom neither slander that gradually soaks into the mind, nor statements 
that startle like a wound in the flesh, are successful may be called
intelligent indeed. Yea, he with whom neither soaking slander, nor
startling statements, are successful, may be called farseeing."

Tsze-kung asked about government. The Master said, "The requisites of
government are that there be sufficiency of food, sufficiency of military 
equipment, and the confidence of the people in their ruler."

Tsze-kung said, "If it cannot be helped, and one of these must be dispensed
with, which of the three should be foregone first?" "The military 
equipment," said the Master.

Tsze-kung again asked, "If it cannot be helped, and one of the remaining
two must be dispensed with, which of them should be foregone?" The Master
answered, "Part with the food. From of old, death has been the lot of an
men; but if the people have no faith in their rulers, there is no standing
for the state."

Chi Tsze-ch'ang said, "In a superior man it is only the substantial 
qualities which are wanted;-why should we seek for ornamental 

Tsze-kung said, "Alas! Your words, sir, show you to be a superior man, but
four horses cannot overtake the tongue. Ornament is as substance; substance
is as ornament. The hide of a tiger or a leopard stripped of its hair, is
like the hide of a dog or a goat stripped of its hair."

The Duke Ai inquired of Yu Zo, saying, "The year is one of scarcity, and
the returns for expenditure are not sufficient;-what is to be done?"

Yu Zo replied to him, "Why not simply tithe the people?"
"With two tenths, said the duke, "I find it not enough;-how could I do with
that system of one tenth?"

Yu Zo answered, "If the people have plenty, their prince will not be left
to want alone. If the people are in want, their prince cannot enjoy plenty

Tsze-chang having asked how virtue was to be exalted, and delusions to be
discovered, the Master said, "Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first
principles, and be moving continually to what is right,-this is the way to
exalt one's virtue.

"You love a man and wish him to live; you hate him and wish him to die.
Having wished him to live, you also wish him to die. This is a case of
delusion. 'It may not be on account of her being rich, yet you come to make
a difference.'"

The Duke Ching, of Ch'i, asked Confucius about government. Confucius 
replied, "There is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister 
is minister; when the father is father, and the son is son."

"Good!" said the duke; "if, indeed, the prince be not prince, the not
minister, the father not father, and the son not son, although I have my
revenue, can I enjoy it?"

The Master said, "Ah! it is Yu, who could with half a word settle 

Tsze-lu never slept over a promise.
The Master said, "In hearing litigations, I am like any other body. What is
necessary, however, is to cause the people to have no litigations."

Tsze-chang asked about government. The Master said, "The art of governing
is to keep its affairs before the mind without weariness, and to practice
them with undeviating consistency."

The Master said, "By extensively studying all learning, and keeping himself
under the restraint of the rules of propriety, one may thus likewise not
err from what is right."

The Master said, "The superior man seeks to perfect the admirable qualities
of men, and does not seek to perfect their bad qualities. The mean man does
the opposite of this."

Chi K'ang asked Confucius about government. Confucius replied, "To govern
means to rectify. If you lead on the people with correctness, who will dare
not to be correct?"

Chi K'ang, distressed about the number of thieves in the state, inquired of
Confucius how to do away with them. Confucius said, "If you, sir, were not
covetous, although you should reward them to do it, they would not steal."

Chi K'ang asked Confucius about government, saying, "What do you say to
killing the unprincipled for the good of the principled?" Confucius 
replied, "Sir, in carrying on your government, why should you use killing 
at all? Let your evinced desires be for what is good, and the people will 
be good. The relation between superiors and inferiors is like that between 
the wind and the grass. The grass must bend, when the wind blows across 

Tsze-chang asked, "What must the officer be, who may be said to be

The Master said, "What is it you call being distinguished?"
Tsze-chang replied, "It is to be heard of through the state, to be heard of
throughout his clan."

The Master said, "That is notoriety, not distinction.
"Now the man of distinction is solid and straightforward, and loves 
righteousness. He examines people's words, and looks at their countenances.
He is anxious to humble himself to others. Such a man will be distinguished
in the country; he will be distinguished in his clan.

"As to the man of notoriety, he assumes the appearance of virtue, but his
actions are opposed to it, and he rests in this character without any
doubts about himself. Such a man will be heard of in the country; he will
be heard of in the clan."

Fan Ch'ih rambling with the Master under the trees about the rain altars,
said, "I venture to ask how to exalt virtue, to correct cherished evil, and
to discover delusions."

The Master said, "Truly a good question!
"If doing what is to be done be made the first business, and success a
secondary consideration:-is not this the way to exalt virtue? To assail 
one's own wickedness and not assail that of others;-is not this the way to
correct cherished evil? For a morning's anger to disregard one's own life,
and involve that of his parents;-is not this a case of delusion?"

Fan Ch'ih asked about benevolence. The Master said, "It is to love all
men." He asked about knowledge. The Master said, "It is to know all men."

Fan Ch'ih did not immediately understand these answers.
The Master said, "Employ the upright and put aside all the crooked; in this
way the crooked can be made to be upright."

Fan Ch'ih retired, and, seeing Tsze-hsia, he said to him, "A Little while
ago, I had an interview with our Master, and asked him about knowledge. He
said, 'Employ the upright, and put aside all the crooked;-in this way, the
crooked will be made to be upright.' What did he mean?"

Tsze-hsia said, "Truly rich is his saying!
"Shun, being in possession of the kingdom, selected from among all the
people, and employed Kai-yao-on which all who were devoid of virtue 
disappeared. T'ang, being in possession of the kingdom, selected from among
all the people, and employed I Yin-and an who were devoid of virtue 

Tsze-kung asked about friendship. The Master said, "Faithfully admonish
your friend, and skillfully lead him on. If you find him impracticable, 
stop. Do not disgrace yourself."

The philosopher Tsang said, "The superior man on grounds of culture meets
with his friends, and by friendship helps his virtue."

Part 13

Tsze-lu asked about government. The Master said, "Go before the people with
your example, and be laborious in their affairs."

He requested further instruction, and was answered, "Be not weary in these

Chung-kung, being chief minister to the head of the Chi family, asked about
government. The Master said, "Employ first the services of your various
officers, pardon small faults, and raise to office men of virtue and

Chung-kung said, "How shall I know the men of virtue and talent, so that I
may raise them to office?" He was answered, "Raise to office those whom you
know. As to those whom you do not know, will others neglect them?"

Tsze-lu said, "The ruler of Wei has been waiting for you, in order with you
to administer the government. What will you consider the first thing to be

The Master replied, "What is necessary is to rectify names."
"So! indeed!" said Tsze-lu. "You are wide of the mark! Why must there be
such rectification?"

The Master said, "How uncultivated you are, Yu! A superior man, in regard
to what he does not know, shows a cautious reserve.

"If names be not correct, language is not in accordance with the truth of
things. If language be not in accordance with the truth of things, affairs
cannot be carried on to success.

"When affairs cannot be carried on to success, proprieties and music do not
flourish. When proprieties and music do not flourish, punishments will not
be properly awarded. When punishments are not properly awarded, the people
do not know how to move hand or foot.

"Therefore a superior man considers it necessary that the names he uses may
be spoken appropriately, and also that what he speaks may be carried out
appropriately. What the superior man requires is just that in his words
there may be nothing incorrect."

Fan Ch'ih requested to be taught husbandry. The Master said, "I am not so
good for that as an old husbandman." He requested also to be taught
gardening, and was answered, "I am not so good for that as an old 

Fan Ch'ih having gone out, the Master said, "A small man, indeed, is Fan
Hsu! If a superior man love propriety, the people will not dare not to be
reverent. If he love righteousness, the people will not dare not to submit
to his example. If he love good faith, the people will not dare not to be
sincere. Now, when these things obtain, the people from all quarters will
come to him, bearing their children on their backs; what need has he of a
knowledge of husbandry?"

The Master said, "Though a man may be able to recite the three hundred
odes, yet if, when intrusted with a governmental charge, he knows not how
to act, or if, when sent to any quarter on a mission, he cannot give his
replies unassisted, notwithstanding the extent of his learning, of what
practical use is it?"

The Master said, "When a prince's personal conduct is correct, his
government is effective without the issuing of orders. If his personal 
conduct is not correct, he may issue orders, but they will not be 

The Master said, "The governments of Lu and Wei are brothers."
The Master said of Ching, a scion of the ducal family of Wei, that he knew
the economy of a family well. When he began to have means, he said, "Ha!
here is a collection-!" When they were a little increased, he said, "Ha!
this is complete!" When he had become rich, he said, "Ha! this is 

When the Master went to Weil Zan Yu acted as driver of his carriage.
The Master observed, "How numerous are the people!"
Yu said, "Since they are thus numerous, what more shall be done for them?"
"Enrich them, was the reply.

"And when they have been enriched, what more shall be done?" The Master
said, "Teach them."

The Master said, "If there were any of the princes who would employ me, in
the course of twelve months, I should have done something considerable. In
three years, the government would be perfected."

The Master said, "'If good men were to govern a country in succession for a
hundred years, they would be able to transform the violently bad, and
dispense with capital punishments.' True indeed is this saying!"

The Master said, "If a truly royal ruler were to arise, it would stir
require a generation, and then virtue would prevail."

The Master said, "If a minister make his own conduct correct, what 
difficulty will he have in assisting in government? If he cannot rectify 
himself, what has he to do with rectifying others?"

The disciple Zan returning from the court, the Master said to him, "How are
you so late?" He replied, "We had government business." The Master said,
"It must have been family affairs. If there had been government business, 
though I am not now in office, I should have been consulted about it."

The Duke Ting asked whether there was a single sentence which could make a
country prosperous. Confucius replied, "Such an effect cannot be expected
from one sentence.

"There is a saying, however, which people have -'To be a prince is
difficult; to be a minister is not easy.'

"If a ruler knows this,-the difficulty of being a prince,-may there not be
expected from this one sentence the prosperity of his country?"

The duke then said, "Is there a single sentence which can ruin a country?"
Confucius replied, "Such an effect as that cannot be expected from one
sentence. There is, however, the saying which people have-'I have no
pleasure in being a prince, but only in that no one can offer any
opposition to what I say!'

"If a ruler's words be good, is it not also good that no one oppose them?
But if they are not good, and no one opposes them, may there not be
expected from this one sentence the ruin of his country?"

The Duke of Sheh asked about government.
The Master said, "Good government obtains when those who are near are made
happy, and those who are far off are attracted."

Tsze-hsia! being governor of Chu-fu, asked about government. The Master
said, "Do not be desirous to have things done quickly; do not look at small
advantages. Desire to have things done quickly prevents their being done
thoroughly. Looking at small advantages prevents great affairs from being

The Duke of Sheh informed Confucius, saying, "Among us here there are those
who may be styled upright in their conduct. If their father have stolen a
sheep, they will bear witness to the fact."

Confucius said, "Among us, in our part of the country, those who are
upright are different from this. The father conceals the misconduct of the
son, and the son conceals the misconduct of the father. Uprightness is to
be found in this."

Fan Ch'ih asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "It is, in
retirement, to be sedately grave; in the management of business, to be
reverently attentive; in intercourse with others, to be strictly sincere. 
Though a man go among rude, uncultivated tribes, these qualities may not be

Tsze-kung asked, saying, "What qualities must a man possess to entitle him
to be called an officer? The Master said, "He who in his conduct of himself
maintains a sense of shame, and when sent to any quarter will not disgrace
his prince's commission, deserves to be called an officer."

Tsze-kung pursued, "I venture to ask who may be placed in the next lower
rank?" And he was told, "He whom the circle of his relatives pronounce to
be filial, whom his fellow villagers and neighbors pronounce to be 

Again the disciple asked, "I venture to ask about the class still next in
order." The Master said, "They are determined to be sincere in what they
say, and to carry out what they do. They are obstinate little men. Yet
perhaps they may make the next class."

Tsze-kung finally inquired, "Of what sort are those of the present day, who
engage in government?" The Master said "Pooh! they are so many pecks and
hampers, not worth being taken into account."

The Master said, "Since I cannot get men pursuing the due medium, to whom I
might communicate my instructions, I must find the ardent and the
cautiously-decided. The ardent will advance and lay hold of truth; the
cautiously-decided will keep themselves from what is wrong."

The Master said, "The people of the south have a saying -'A man without
constancy cannot be either a wizard or a doctor.' Good!

"Inconstant in his virtue, he will be visited with disgrace."
The Master said, "This arises simply from not attending to the 

The Master said, "The superior man is affable, but not adulatory; the mean
man is adulatory, but not affable."

Tsze-kung asked, saying, "What do you say of a man who is loved by all the
people of his neighborhood?" The Master replied, "We may not for that
accord our approval of him." "And what do you say of him who is hated by
all the people of his neighborhood?" The Master said, "We may not for that
conclude that he is bad. It is better than either of these cases that the
good in the neighborhood love him, and the bad hate him."

The Master said, "The superior man is easy to serve and difficult to
please. If you try to please him in any way which is not accordant with 
right, he will not be pleased. But in his employment of men, he uses them 
according to their capacity. The mean man is difficult to serve, and easy 
to please. If you try to please him, though it be in a way which is not 
accordant with right, he may be pleased. But in his employment of men, he
wishes them to be equal to everything."

The Master said, "The superior man has a dignified ease without pride. The
mean man has pride without a dignified ease."

The Master said, "The firm, the enduring, the simple, and the modest are
near to virtue."

Tsze-lu asked, saying, "What qualities must a man possess to entitle him to
be called a scholar?" The Master said, "He must be thus,-earnest, urgent,
and bland:-among his friends, earnest and urgent; among his brethren, 

The Master said, "Let a good man teach the people seven years, and they may
then likewise be employed in war."

The Master said, "To lead an uninstructed people to war, is to throw them

Part 14

Hsien asked what was shameful. The Master said, "When good government 
prevails in a state, to be thinking only of salary; and, when bad
government prevails, to be thinking, in the same way, only of salary;-this
is shameful."

"When the love of superiority, boasting, resentments, and covetousness are
repressed, this may be deemed perfect virtue."

The Master said, "This may be regarded as the achievement of what is
difficult. But I do not know that it is to be deemed perfect virtue."

The Master said, "The scholar who cherishes the love of comfort is not fit
to be deemed a scholar."

The Master said, "When good government prevails in a state, language may be
lofty and bold, and actions the same. When bad government prevails, the
actions may be lofty and bold, but the language may be with some reserve."

The Master said, "The virtuous will be sure to speak correctly, but those
whose speech is good may not always be virtuous. Men of principle are sure
to be bold, but those who are bold may not always be men of principle."

Nan-kung Kwo, submitting an inquiry to Confucius, said, "I was skillful at
archery, and Ao could move a boat along upon the land, but neither of them
died a natural death. Yu and Chi personally wrought at the toils of
husbandry, and they became possessors of the kingdom." The Master made no
reply; but when Nan-kung Kwo went out, he said, "A superior man indeed is
this! An esteemer of virtue indeed is this!"

The Master said, "Superior men, and yet not always virtuous, there have
been, alas! But there never has been a mean man, and, at the same time,

The Master said, "Can there be love which does not lead to strictness with
its object? Can there be loyalty which does not lead to the instruction of
its object?"

The Master said, "In preparing the governmental notifications, P'i Shan
first made the rough draft; Shi-shu examined and discussed its contents;
Tsze-yu, the manager of foreign intercourse, then polished the style; and,
finally, Tsze-ch'an of Tung-li gave it the proper elegance and finish."

Some one asked about Tsze-ch'an. The Master said, "He was a kind man."

He asked about Tsze-hsi. The Master said, "That man! That man!"
He asked about Kwan Chung. "For him," said the Master, "the city of Pien,
with three hundred families, was taken from the chief of the Po family, who
did not utter a murmuring word, though, to the end of his life, he had only
coarse rice to eat."

The Master said, "To be poor without murmuring is difficult. To be rich
without being proud is easy."

The Master said, "Mang Kung-ch'o is more than fit to be chief officer in
the families of Chao and Wei, but he is not fit to be great officer to
either of the states Tang or Hsieh."

Tsze-lu asked what constituted a COMPLETE man. The Master said, "Suppose a
man with the knowledge of Tsang Wu-chung, the freedom from covetousness of
Kung-ch'o, the bravery of Chwang of Pien, and the varied talents of Zan
Ch'iu; add to these the accomplishments of the rules of propriety and 
music;-such a one might be reckoned a Complete man."

He then added, "But what is the necessity for a complete man of the present
day to have all these things? The man, who in the view of gain, thinks of
righteousness; who in the view of danger is prepared to give up his life;
and who does not forget an old agreement however far back it extends:-such
a man may be reckoned a COMPLETE man."

The Master asked Kung-ming Chia about Kung-shu Wan, saying, "Is it true
that your master speaks not, laughs not, and takes not?"

Kung-ming Chia replied, "This has arisen from the reporters going beyond
the truth.-My master speaks when it is the time to speak, and so men do not
get tired of his speaking. He laughs when there is occasion to be joyful,
and so men do not get tired of his laughing. He takes when it is consistent
with righteousness to do so, and so men do not get tired of his taking."
The Master said, "So! But is it so with him?"

The Master said, "Tsang Wu-chung, keeping possession of Fang, asked of the
duke of Lu to appoint a successor to him in his family. Although it may be
said that he was not using force with his sovereign, I believe he was."

The Master said, "The duke Wan of Tsin was crafty and not upright. The duke
Hwan of Ch'i was upright and not crafty."

Tsze-lu said, "The Duke Hwan caused his brother Chiu to be killed, when
Shao Hu died, with his master, but Kwan Chung did not die. May not I say
that he was wanting in virtue?"

The Master said, "The Duke Hwan assembled all the princes together, and
that not with weapons of war and chariots:-it was all through the influence
of Kwan Chung. Whose beneficence was like his? Whose beneficence was like 

Tsze-kung said, "Kwan Chung, I apprehend was wanting in virtue. When the
Duke Hwan caused his brother Chiu to be killed, Kwan Chung was not able to
die with him. Moreover, he became prime minister to Hwan."

The Master said, "Kwan Chung acted as prime minister to the Duke Hwan made
him leader of all the princes, and united and rectified the whole kingdom.
Down to the present day, the people enjoy the gifts which he conferred. But
for Kwan Chung, we should now be wearing our hair unbound, and the lappets
of our coats buttoning on the left side.

"Will you require from him the small fidelity of common men and common
women, who would commit suicide in a stream or ditch, no one knowing 
anything about them?"

The great officer, Hsien, who had been family minister to Kung-shu Wan,
ascended to the prince's court in company with Wan.

The Master, having heard of it, said, "He deserved to be considered WAN
(the accomplished)."

The Master was speaking about the unprincipled course of the duke Ling of
Weil when Ch'i K'ang said, "Since he is of such a character, how is it he
does not lose his state?"

Confucius said, "The Chung-shu Yu has the superintendence of his guests and
of strangers; the litanist, T'o, has the management of his ancestral 
temple; and Wang-sun Chia has the direction of the army and forces:-with 
such officers as these, how should he lose his state?"

The Master said, "He who speaks without modesty will find it difficult to
make his words good."

Chan Ch'ang murdered the Duke Chien of Ch'i.
Confucius bathed, went to court and informed the Duke Ai, saying, "Chan 
Hang has slain his sovereign. I beg that you will undertake to punish him."

The duke said, "Inform the chiefs of the three families of it."
Confucius retired, and said, "Following in the rear of the great officers, 
I did not dare not to represent such a matter, and my prince says, "Inform 
the chiefs of the three families of it."

He went to the chiefs, and informed them, but they would not act. Confucius
then said, "Following in the rear of the great officers, I did not dare not
to represent such a matter."

Tsze-lu asked how a ruler should be served. The Master said, "Do not impose
on him, and, moreover, withstand him to his face."

The Master said, "The progress of the superior man is upwards; the progress
of the mean man is downwards."

The Master said, "In ancient times, men learned with a view to their own
improvement. Nowadays, men learn with a view to the approbation of others."

Chu Po-yu sent a messenger with friendly inquiries to Confucius.
Confucius sat with him, and questioned him. "What," said he! "is your 
master engaged in?" The messenger replied, "My master is anxious to make 
his faults few, but he has not yet succeeded." He then went out, and the 
Master said, "A messenger indeed! A messenger indeed!"

The Master said, "He who is not in any particular office has nothing to do
with plans for the administration of its duties."

The philosopher Tsang said, "The superior man, in his thoughts, does not go
out of his place."

The Master said, "The superior man is modest in his speech, but exceeds in
his actions."

The Master said, "The way of the superior man is threefold, but I am not
equal to it. Virtuous, he is free from anxieties; wise, he is free from
perplexities; bold, he is free from fear.

Tsze-kung said, "Master, that is what you yourself say."
Tsze-kung was in the habit of comparing men together. The Master said, 
"Tsze must have reached a high pitch of excellence! Now, I have not leisure
for this."

The Master said, "I will not be concerned at men's not knowing me; I will
be concerned at my own want of ability."

The Master said, "He who does not anticipate attempts to deceive him, nor
think beforehand of his not being believed, and yet apprehends these things
readily when they occur;-is he not a man of superior worth?"

Wei-shang Mau said to Confucius, "Ch'iu, how is it that you keep roosting
about? Is it not that you are an insinuating talker?

Confucius said, "I do not dare to play the part of such a talker, but I
hate obstinacy."

The Master said, "A horse is called a ch'i, not because of its strength,
but because of its other good qualities."

Some one said, "What do you say concerning the principle that injury should
be recompensed with kindness?"

The Master said, "With what then will you recompense kindness?"
"Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with kindness."

The Master said, "Alas! there is no one that knows me."
Tsze-kung said, "What do you mean by thus saying-that no one knows you?"
The Master replied, "I do not murmur against Heaven. I do not grumble 
against men. My studies lie low, and my penetration rises high. But there 
is Heaven;-that knows me!"

The Kung-po Liao, having slandered Tsze-lu to Chi-sun, Tsze-fu Ching-po
informed Confucius of it, saying, "Our master is certainly being led astray
by the Kung-po Liao, but I have still power enough left to cut Liao off,
and expose his corpse in the market and in the court."

The Master said, "If my principles are to advance, it is so ordered. If
they are to fall to the ground, it is so ordered. What can the Kung-po Liao
do where such ordering is concerned?"

The Master said, "Some men of worth retire from the world. Some retire from
particular states. Some retire because of disrespectful looks. Some retire
because of contradictory language."

The Master said, "Those who have done this are seven men."
Tsze-lu happening to pass the night in Shih-man, the gatekeeper said to
him, "Whom do you come from?" Tsze-lu said, "From Mr. K'ung." "It is he,-is
it not?"-said the other, "who knows the impracticable nature of the times
and yet will be doing in them."

The Master was playing, one day, on a musical stone in Weil when a man
carrying a straw basket passed door of the house where Confucius was, and
said, "His heart is full who so beats the musical stone."

A little while after, he added, "How contemptible is the one-ideaed 
obstinacy those sounds display! When one is taken no notice of, he has 
simply at once to give over his wish for public employment. 'Deep water 
must be crossed with the clothes on; shallow water may be crossed with the
clothes held up.'"

The Master said, "How determined is he in his purpose! But this is not

Tsze-chang said, "What is meant when the Shu says that Kao-tsung, while
observing the usual imperial mourning, was for three years without 

The Master said, "Why must Kao-tsung be referred to as an example of this?
The ancients all did so. When the sovereign died, the officers all attended
to their several duties, taking instructions from the prime minister for
three years."

The Master said, "When rulers love to observe the rules of propriety, the
people respond readily to the calls on them for service."

Tsze-lu asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "The
cultivation of himself in reverential carefulness." "And is this all?" said
Tsze-lu. "He cultivates himself so as to give rest to others," was the
reply. "And is this all?" again asked Tsze-lu. The Master said, "He 
cultivates himself so as to give rest to all the people. He cultivates 
himself so as to give rest to all the people:-even Yao and Shun were still 
solicitous about this."

Yuan Zang was squatting on his heels, and so waited the approach of the
Master, who said to him, "In youth not humble as befits a junior; in
manhood, doing nothing worthy of being handed down; and living on to old
age:-this is to be a pest." With this he hit him on the shank with his

A youth of the village of Ch'ueh was employed by Confucius to carry the
messages between him and his visitors. Some one asked about him, saying, "I
suppose he has made great progress."

The Master said, "I observe that he is fond of occupying the seat of a
full-grown man; I observe that he walks shoulder to shoulder with his
elders. He is not one who is seeking to make progress in learning. He
wishes quickly to become a man."

Part 15

The Duke Ling of Wei asked Confucius about tactics. Confucius replied, "I
have heard all about sacrificial vessels, but I have not learned military 
matters." On this, he took his departure the next day.

When he was in Chan, their provisions were exhausted, and his followers 
became so in that they were unable to rise.

Tsze-lu, with evident dissatisfaction, said, "Has the superior man likewise
to endure in this way?" The Master said, "The superior man may indeed have
to endure want, but the mean man, when he is in want, gives way to
unbridled license."

The Master said, "Ts'ze, you think, I suppose, that I am one who learns
many things and keeps them in memory?"

Tsze-kung replied, "Yes,-but perhaps it is not so?"
"No," was the answer; "I seek a unity all pervading."
The Master said, "Yu I those who know virtue are few."
The Master said, "May not Shun be instanced as having governed efficiently 
without exertion? What did he do? He did nothing but gravely and reverently
occupy his royal seat."

Tsze-chang asked how a man should conduct himself, so as to be everywhere

The Master said, "Let his words be sincere and truthful and his actions
honorable and careful;-such conduct may be practiced among the rude tribes
of the South or the North. If his words be not sincere and truthful and his
actions not honorable and carefull will he, with such conduct, be
appreciated, even in his neighborhood?

"When he is standing, let him see those two things, as it were, fronting
him. When he is in a carriage, let him see them attached to the yoke. Then
may he subsequently carry them into practice."

Tsze-chang wrote these counsels on the end of his sash.
The Master said, "Truly straightforward was the historiographer Yu. When
good government prevailed in his state, he was like an arrow. When bad
government prevailed, he was like an arrow. A superior man indeed is Chu
Po-yu! When good government prevails in his state, he is to be found in
office. When bad government prevails, he can roll his principles up, and
keep them in his breast."

The Master said, "When a man may be spoken with, not to speak to him is to
err in reference to the man. When a man may not be spoken with, to speak to
him is to err in reference to our words. The wise err neither in regard to
their man nor to their words."

The Master said, "The determined scholar and the man of virtue will not
seek to live at the expense of injuring their virtue. They will even
sacrifice their lives to preserve their virtue complete."

Tsze-kung asked about the practice of virtue. The Master said, "The
mechanic, who wishes to do his work well, must first sharpen his tools. 
When you are living in any state, take service with the most worthy among 
its great officers, and make friends of the most virtuous among its 

Yen Yuan asked how the government of a country should be administered.

The Master said, "Follow the seasons of Hsia.
"Ride in the state carriage of Yin.
"Wear the ceremonial cap of Chau.
"Let the music be the Shao with its pantomimes. Banish the songs of Chang,
and keep far from specious talkers. The songs of Chang are licentious; 
specious talkers are dangerous."

The Master said, "If a man take no thought about what is distant, he will
find sorrow near at hand."

The Master said, "It is all over! I have not seen one who loves virtue as
he loves beauty."

The Master said, "Was not Tsang Wan like one who had stolen his situation?
He knew the virtue and the talents of Hui of Liu-hsia, and yet did not
procure that he should stand with him in court."

The Master said, "He who requires much from himself and little from others,
will keep himself from being the object of resentment."

The Master said, "When a man is not in the habit of saying-'What shall I
think of this? What shall I think of this?' I can indeed do nothing with

The Master said, "When a number of people are together, for a whole day,
without their conversation turning on righteousness, and when they are fond
of carrying out the suggestions of a small shrewdness;-theirs is indeed a
hard case."

The Master said, "The superior man in everything considers righteousness to
be essential. He performs it according to the rules of propriety. He brings
it forth in humility. He completes it with sincerity. This is indeed a
superior man."

The Master said, "The superior man is distressed by his want of ability. He
is not distressed by men's not knowing him."

The Master said, "The superior man dislikes the thought of his name not
being mentioned after his death."

The Master said, "What the superior man seeks, is in himself. What the mean
man seeks, is in others."

The Master said, "The superior man is dignified, but does not wrangle. He
is sociable, but not a partisan."

The Master said, "The superior man does not promote a man simply on account
of his words, nor does he put aside good words because of the man."

Tsze-kung asked, saying, "Is there one word which may serve as a rule of
practice for all one's life?" The Master said, "Is not Reciprocity such a
word? What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others."

The Master said, "In my dealings with men, whose evil do I blame, whose
goodness do I praise, beyond what is proper? If I do sometimes exceed in
praise, there must be ground for it in my examination of the individual.

"This people supplied the ground why the three dynasties pursued the path
of straightforwardness."

The Master said, "Even in my early days, a historiographer would leave a
blank in his text, and he who had a horse would lend him to another to
ride. Now, alas! there are no such things."

The Master said, "Specious words confound virtue. Want of forbearance in
small matters confounds great plans."

The Master said, "When the multitude hate a man, it is necessary to examine
into the case. When the multitude like a man, it is necessary to examine
into the case."

The Master said, "A man can enlarge the principles which he follows; those
principles do not enlarge the man."

The Master said, "To have faults and not to reform them,-this, indeed,
should be pronounced having faults."

The Master said, "I have been the whole day without eating, and the whole
night without sleeping:-occupied with thinking. It was of no use. better
plan is to learn."

The Master said, "The object of the superior man is truth. Food is not his
object. There is plowing;-even in that there is sometimes want. So with
learning;-emolument may be found in it. The superior man is anxious lest he
should not get truth; he is not anxious lest poverty should come upon him."

The Master said, "When a man's knowledge is sufficient to attain, and his
virtue is not sufficient to enable him to hold, whatever he may have
gained, he will lose again.

"When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue enough to
hold fast, if he cannot govern with dignity, the people will not respect

"When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue enough to
hold fast; when he governs also with dignity, yet if he try to move the
people contrary to the rules of propriety:-full excellence is not reached."

The Master said, "The superior man cannot be known in little matters; but
he may be intrusted with great concerns. The small man may not be intrusted
with great concerns, but he may be known in little matters."

The Master said, "Virtue is more to man than either water or fire. I have
seen men die from treading on water and fire, but I have never seen a man
die from treading the course of virtue."

The Master said, "Let every man consider virtue as what devolves on
himself. He may not yield the performance of it even to his teacher."

The Master said, "The superior man is correctly firm, and not firm merely."

The Master said, "A minister, in serving his prince, reverently discharges
his duties, and makes his emolument a secondary consideration."

The Master said, "In teaching there should be no distinction of classes."

The Master said, "Those whose courses are different cannot lay plans for
one another."

The Master said, "In language it is simply required that it convey the

The music master, Mien, having called upon him, when they came to the
steps, the Master said, "Here are the steps." When they came to the mat for
the guest to sit upon, he said, "Here is the mat." When all were seated,
the Master informed him, saying, "So and so is here; so and so is here."

The music master, Mien, having gone out, Tsze-chang asked, saying. "Is it
the rule to tell those things to the music master?"

The Master said, "Yes. This is certainly the rule for those who lead the



Part 16

The head of the Chi family was going to attack Chwan-yu.
Zan Yu and Chi-lu had an interview with Confucius, and said, "Our chief, 
Chil is going to commence operations against Chwan-yu."

Confucius said, "Ch'iu, is it not you who are in fault here?
"Now, in regard to Chwan-yu, long ago, a former king appointed its ruler to
preside over the sacrifices to the eastern Mang; moreover, it is in the
midst of the territory of our state; and its ruler is a minister in direct
connection with the sovereign: What has your chief to do with attacking it?

Zan Yu said, "Our master wishes the thing; neither of us two ministers 
wishes it."

Confucius said, "Ch'iu, there are the words of Chau Zan, -'When he can put
forth his ability, he takes his place in the ranks of office; when he finds
himself unable to do so, he retires from it. How can he be used as a guide
to a blind man, who does not support him when tottering, nor raise him up
when fallen?'

"And further, you speak wrongly. When a tiger or rhinoceros escapes from
his cage; when a tortoise or piece of jade is injured in its
repository:-whose is the fault?"

Zan Yu said, "But at present, Chwan-yu is strong and near to Pi; if our
chief do not now take it, it will hereafter be a sorrow to his 

Confucius said. "Ch'iu, the superior man hates those declining to say-'I
want such and such a thing,' and framing explanations for their conduct.

"I have heard that rulers of states and chiefs of families are not troubled
lest their people should be few, but are troubled lest they should not keep
their several places; that they are not troubled with fears of poverty, but
are troubled with fears of a want of contented repose among the people in
their several places. For when the people keep their several places, there
will be no poverty; when harmony prevails, there will be no scarcity of
people; and when there is such a contented repose, there will be no
rebellious upsettings.

"So it is.-Therefore, if remoter people are not submissive, all the
influences of civil culture and virtue are to be cultivated to attract them
to be so; and when they have been so attracted, they must be made contented
and tranquil.

"Now, here are you, Yu and Ch'iu, assisting your chief. Remoter people are
not submissive, and, with your help, he cannot attract them to him. In his
own territory there are divisions and downfalls, leavings and separations,
and, with your help, he cannot preserve it.

"And yet he is planning these hostile movements within the state.-I am
afraid that the sorrow of the Chi-sun family will not be on account of
Chwan-yu, but will be found within the screen of their own court."

Confucius said, "When good government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, 
music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the son of Heaven. 
When bad government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive
military expeditions proceed from the princes. When these things proceed 
from the princes, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not 
lose their power in ten generations. When they proceed from the great
officers of the princes, as a rule, the case will be few in which they do
not lose their power in five generations. When the subsidiary ministers of
the great officers hold in their grasp the orders of the state, as a rule
the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in three 

"When right principles prevail in the kingdom, government will not be in
the hands of the great officers.

"When right principles prevail in the kingdom, there will be no discussions
among the common people."

Confucius said, "The revenue of the state has left the ducal house now for
five generations. The government has been in the hands of the great 
officers for four generations. On this account, the descendants of the 
three Hwan are much reduced."

Confucius said, "There are three friendships which are advantageous, and
three which are injurious. Friendship with the uplight; friendship with the
sincere; and friendship with the man of much observation:-these are
advantageous. Friendship with the man of specious airs; friendship with the
insinuatingly soft; and friendship with the glib-tongued:-these are

Confucius said, "There are three things men find enjoyment in which are
advantageous, and three things they find enjoyment in which are injurious. 
To find enjoyment in the discriminating study of ceremonies and music; to
find enjoyment in speaking of the goodness of others; to find enjoyment in
having many worthy friends:-these are advantageous. To find enjoyment in
extravagant pleasures; to find enjoyment in idleness and sauntering; to
find enjoyment in the pleasures of feasting:-these are injurious."

Confucius said, "There are three errors to which they who stand in the
presence of a man of virtue and station are liable. They may speak when it
does not come to them to speak;-this is called rashness. They may not speak
when it comes to them to speak;-this is called concealment. They may speak
without looking at the countenance of their superior;-this is called

Confucius said, "There are three things which the superior man guards
against. In youth, when the physical powers are not yet settled, he guards
against lust. When he is strong and the physical powers are full of vigor,
he guards against quarrelsomeness. When he is old, and the animal powers
are decayed, he guards against covetousness."

Confucius said, "There are three things of which the superior man stands in
awe. He stands in awe of the ordinances of Heaven. He stands in awe of
great men. He stands in awe of the words of sages.

"The mean man does not know the ordinances of Heaven, and consequently does
not stand in awe of them. He is disrespectful to great men. He makes sport
of the words of sages."

Confucius said, "Those who are born with the possession of knowledge are
the highest class of men. Those who learn, and so readily get possession of
knowledge, are the next. Those who are dull and stupid, and yet compass the
learning, are another class next to these. As to those who are dull and
stupid and yet do not learn;-they are the lowest of the people."

Confucius said, "The superior man has nine things which are subjects with
him of thoughtful consideration. In regard to the use of his eyes, he is
anxious to see clearly. In regard to the use of his ears, he is anxious to
hear distinctly. In regard to his countenance, he is anxious that it should
be benign. In regard to his demeanor, he is anxious that it should be
respectful. In regard to his speech, he is anxious that it should be 
sincere. In regard to his doing of business, he is anxious that it should 
be reverently careful. In regard to what he doubts about, he is anxious to
question others. When he is angry, he thinks of the difficulties his anger
may involve him in. When he sees gain to be got, he thinks of 

Confucius said, "Contemplating good, and pursuing it, as if they could not
reach it; contemplating evil! and shrinking from it, as they would from
thrusting the hand into boiling water:-I have seen such men, as I have
heard such words.

"Living in retirement to study their aims, and practicing righteousness to
carry out their principles:-I have heard these words, but I have not seen
such men."

The Duke Ching of Ch'i had a thousand teams, each of four horses, but on
the day of his death, the people did not praise him for a single virtue.
Po-i and Shu-ch'i died of hunger at the foot of the Shau-yang mountains, 
and the people, down to the present time, praise them.

"Is not that saying illustrated by this?"
Ch'an K'ang asked Po-yu, saying, "Have you heard any lessons from your 
father different from what we have all heard?"

Po-yu replied, "No. He was standing alone once, when I passed below the
hall with hasty steps, and said to me, 'Have you learned the Odes?' On my
replying 'Not yet,' he added, If you do not learn the Odes, you will not be
fit to converse with.' I retired and studied the Odes.

"Another day, he was in the same way standing alone, when I passed by below
the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, 'Have you learned the rules of
Propriety?' On my replying 'Not yet,' he added, 'If you do not learn the
rules of Propriety, your character cannot be established.' I then retired,
and learned the rules of Propriety.

"I have heard only these two things from him."
Ch'ang K'ang retired, and, quite delighted, said, "I asked one thing, and I
have got three things. I have heard about the Odes. I have heard about the
rules of Propriety. I have also heard that the superior man maintains a
distant reserve towards his son."

The wife of the prince of a state is called by him Fu Zan. She calls
herself Hsiao T'ung. The people of the state call her Chun Fu Zan, and, to
the people of other states, they call her K'wa Hsiao Chun. The people of
other states also call her Chun Fu Zan.

Part 17

Yang Ho wished to see Confucius, but Confucius would not go to see him. On
this, he sent a present of a pig to Confucius, who, having chosen a time
when Ho was not at home went to pay his respects for the gift. He met him,
however, on the way.

Ho said to Confucius, "Come, let me speak with you." He then asked, "Can he
be called benevolent who keeps his jewel in his bosom, and leaves his
country to confusion?" Confucius replied, "No." "Can he be called wise, who
is anxious to be engaged in public employment, and yet is constantly losing
the opportunity of being so?" Confucius again said, "No." "The days and
months are passing away; the years do not wait for us." Confucius said, 
"Right; I will go into office."

The Master said, "By nature, men are nearly alike; by practice, they get to
be wide apart."

The Master said, "There are only the wise of the highest class, and the
stupid of the lowest class, who cannot be changed."

The Master, having come to Wu-ch'ang, heard there the sound of stringed
instruments and singing.

Well pleased and smiling, he said, "Why use an ox knife to kill a fowl?"

Tsze-yu replied, "Formerly, Master, I heard you say,-'When the man of high
station is well instructed, he loves men; when the man of low station is
well instructed, he is easily ruled.'"

The Master said, "My disciples, Yen's words are right. What I said was only
in sport."

Kung-shan Fu-zao, when he was holding Pi, and in an attitude of rebellion,
invited the Master to visit him, who was rather inclined to go.

Tsze-lu was displeased. and said, "Indeed, you cannot go! Why must you
think of going to see Kung-shan?"

The Master said, "Can it be without some reason that he has invited ME? If
any one employ me, may I not make an eastern Chau?"

Tsze-chang asked Confucius about perfect virtue. Confucius said, "To be
able to practice five things everywhere under heaven constitutes perfect
virtue." He begged to ask what they were, and was told, "Gravity, 
generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness, and kindness. If you are grave,
you will not be treated with disrespect. If you are generous, you will win
all. If you are sincere, people will repose trust in you. If you are 
earnest, you will accomplish much. If you are kind, this will enable you to
employ the services of others.

Pi Hsi inviting him to visit him, the Master was inclined to go.
Tsze-lu said, "Master, formerly I have heard you say, 'When a man in his
own person is guilty of doing evil, a superior man will not associate with
him.' Pi Hsi is in rebellion, holding possession of Chung-mau; if you go to
him, what shall be said?"

The Master said, "Yes, I did use these words. But is it not said, that, if
a thing be really hard, it may be ground without being made thin? Is it not
said, that, if a thing be really white, it may be steeped in a dark fluid
without being made black?

"Am I a bitter gourd? How can I be hung up out of the way of being eaten?"

The Master said, "Yu, have you heard the six words to which are attached
six becloudings?" Yu replied, "I have not."

"Sit down, and I will tell them to you.
"There is the love of being benevolent without the love of learning;-the 
beclouding here leads to a foolish simplicity. There is the love of knowing
without the love of learning;-the beclouding here leads to dissipation of
mind. There is the love of being sincere without the love of learning;-the 
beclouding here leads to an injurious disregard of consequences. There is
the love of straightforwardness without the love of learning;-the
beclouding here leads to rudeness. There is the love of boldness without
the love of learning;-the beclouding here leads to insubordination. There
is the love of firmness without the love of learning;-the beclouding here
leads to extravagant conduct."

The Master said, "My children, why do you not study the Book of Poetry?

"The Odes serve to stimulate the mind.
"They may be used for purposes of self-contemplation.
"They teach the art of sociability.
"They show how to regulate feelings of resentment.
"From them you learn the more immediate duty of serving one's father, and
the remoter one of serving one's prince.

"From them we become largely acquainted with the names of birds, beasts,
and plants."

The Master said to Po-yu, "Do you give yourself to the Chau-nan and the
Shao-nan. The man who has not studied the Chau-nan and the Shao-nan is like
one who stands with his face right against a wall. Is he not so?" The
Master said, "'It is according to the rules of propriety,' they say.-'It is
according to the rules of propriety,' they say. Are gems and silk all that
is meant by propriety? 'It is music,' they say.-'It is music,' they say.
Are hers and drums all that is meant by music?"

The Master said, "He who puts on an appearance of stern firmness, while
inwardly he is weak, is like one of the small, mean people;-yea, is he not
like the thief who breaks through, or climbs over, a wall?"

The Master said, "Your good, careful people of the villages are the thieves
of virtue."

The Master said, To tell, as we go along, what we have heard on the way, is
to cast away our virtue."

The Master said, "There are those mean creatures! How impossible it is
along with them to serve one's prince!

"While they have not got their aims, their anxiety is how to get them. When
they have got them, their anxiety is lest they should lose them.

"When they are anxious lest such things should be lost, there is nothing to
which they will not proceed."

The Master said, "Anciently, men had three failings, which now perhaps are
not to be found.

"The high-mindedness of antiquity showed itself in a disregard of small
things; the high-mindedness of the present day shows itself in wild
license. The stern dignity of antiquity showed itself in grave reserve; the
stern dignity of the present day shows itself in quarrelsome perverseness. 
The stupidity of antiquity showed itself in straightforwardness; the
stupidity of the present day shows itself in sheer deceit."

The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom
associated with virtue."

The Master said, "I hate the manner in which purple takes away the luster
of vermilion. I hate the way in which the songs of Chang confound the music
of the Ya. I hate those who with their sharp mouths overthrow kingdoms and

The Master said, "I would prefer not speaking."
Tsze-kung said, "If you, Master, do not speak, what shall we, your 
disciples, have to record?"

The Master said, "Does Heaven speak? The four seasons pursue their courses,
and all things are continually being produced, but does Heaven say

Zu Pei wished to see Confucius, but Confucius declined, on the ground of
being sick, to see him. When the bearer of this message went out at the
door, the Master took his lute and sang to it, in order that Pei might hear

Tsai Wo asked about the three years' mourning for parents, saying that one
year was long enough.

"If the superior man," said he, "abstains for three years from the
observances of propriety, those observances will be quite lost. If for
three years he abstains from music, music will be ruined. Within a year the
old grain is exhausted, and the new grain has sprung up, and, in procuring
fire by friction, we go through all the changes of wood for that purpose.
After a complete year, the mourning may stop."

The Master said, "If you were, after a year, to eat good rice, and wear
embroidered clothes, would you feel at ease?" "I should," replied Wo.

The Master said, "If you can feel at ease, do it. But a superior man,
during the whole period of mourning, does not enjoy pleasant food which he
may eat, nor derive pleasure from music which he may hear. He also does not
feel at ease, if he is comfortably lodged. Therefore he does not do what
you propose. But now you feel at ease and may do it."

Tsai Wo then went out, and the Master said, "This shows Yu's want of
virtue. It is not till a child is three years old that it is allowed to
leave the arms of its parents. And the three years' mourning is universally
observed throughout the empire. Did Yu enjoy the three years' love of his 

The Master said, "Hard is it to deal with who will stuff himself with food
the whole day, without applying his mind to anything good! Are there not
gamesters and chess players? To be one of these would still be better than
doing nothing at all."

Tsze-lu said, "Does the superior man esteem valor?" The Master said, "The
superior man holds righteousness to be of highest importance. A man in a
superior situation, having valor without righteousness, will be guilty of
insubordination; one of the lower people having valor without 
righteousness, will commit robbery."

Tsze-kung said, "Has the superior man his hatreds also?" The Master said,
"He has his hatreds. He hates those who proclaim the evil of others. He
hates the man who, being in a low station, slanders his superiors. He hates
those who have valor merely, and are unobservant of propriety. He hates
those who are forward and determined, and, at the same time, of contracted 

The Master then inquired, "Ts'ze, have you also your hatreds?" Tsze-kung
replied, "I hate those who pry out matters, and ascribe the knowledge to
their wisdom. I hate those who are only not modest, and think that they are
valorous. I hate those who make known secrets, and think that they are

The Master said, "Of all people, girls and servants are the most difficult
to behave to. If you are familiar with them, they lose their humility. If
you maintain a reserve towards them, they are discontented."

The Master said, "When a man at forty is the object of dislike, he will
always continue what he is."

Part 18

The Viscount of Wei withdrew from the court. The Viscount of Chi became a
slave to Chau. Pi-kan remonstrated with him and died.

Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty possessed these three men of virtue."

Hui of Liu-hsia, being chief criminal judge, was thrice dismissed from his
office. Some one said to him, "Is it not yet time for you, sir, to leave
this?" He replied, "Serving men in an upright way, where shall I go to, and
not experience such a thrice-repeated dismissal? If I choose to serve men
in a crooked way, what necessity is there for me to leave the country of my

The duke Ching of Ch'i, with reference to the manner in which he should
treat Confucius, said, "I cannot treat him as I would the chief of the Chi
family. I will treat him in a manner between that accorded to the chief of
the Chil and that given to the chief of the Mang family." He also said, "I
am old; I cannot use his doctrines." Confucius took his departure.

The people of Ch'i sent to Lu a present of female musicians, which Chi Hwan
received, and for three days no court was held. Confucius took his

The madman of Ch'u, Chieh-yu, passed by Confucius, singing and saying, "O
FANG! O FANG! How is your virtue degenerated! As to the past, reproof is
useless; but the future may still be provided against. Give up your vain
pursuit. Give up your vain pursuit. Peril awaits those who now engage in
affairs of government."

Confucius alighted and wished to converse with him, but Chieh-yu hastened
away, so that he could not talk with him.

Ch'ang-tsu and Chieh-ni were at work in the field together, when Confucius
passed by them, and sent Tsze-lu to inquire for the ford.

Ch'ang-tsu said, "Who is he that holds the reins in the carriage there?"
Tsze-lu told him, "It is K'ung Ch'iu.', "Is it not K'ung of Lu?" asked he.
"Yes," was the reply, to which the other rejoined, "He knows the ford."

Tsze-lu then inquired of Chieh-ni, who said to him, "Who are you, sir?" He
answered, "I am Chung Yu." "Are you not the disciple of K'ung Ch'iu of Lu?"
asked the other. "I am," replied he, and then Chieh-ni said to him,
"Disorder, like a swelling flood, spreads over the whole empire, and who is
he that will change its state for you? Rather than follow one who merely
withdraws from this one and that one, had you not better follow those who
have withdrawn from the world altogether?" With this he fell to covering up
the seed, and proceeded with his work, without stopping.

Tsze-lu went and reported their remarks, when the Master observed with a
sigh, "It is impossible to associate with birds and beasts, as if they were
the same with us. If I associate not with these people,-with mankind,-with
whom shall I associate? If right principles prevailed through the empire,
there would be no use for me to change its state."

Tsze-lu, following the Master, happened to fall behind, when he met an old
man, carrying across his shoulder on a staff a basket for weeds. Tsze-lu
said to him, "Have you seen my master, sir?" The old man replied, "Your
four limbs are unaccustomed to toil; you cannot distinguish the five kinds
of grain:-who is your master?" With this, he planted his staff in the
ground, and proceeded to weed.

Tsze-lu joined his hands across his breast, and stood before him.
The old man kept Tsze-lu to pass the night in his house, killed a fowl, 
prepared millet, and feasted him. He also introduced to him his two sons.

Next day, Tsze-lu went on his way, and reported his adventure. The Master
said, "He is a recluse," and sent Tsze-lu back to see him again, but when
he got to the place, the old man was gone.

Tsze-lu then said to the family, "Not to take office is not righteous. If
the relations between old and young may not be neglected, how is it that he
sets aside the duties that should be observed between sovereign and
minister? Wishing to maintain his personal purity, he allows that great 
relation to come to confusion. A superior man takes office, and performs 
the righteous duties belonging to it. As to the failure of right principles
to make progress, he is aware of that."

The men who have retired to privacy from the world have been Po-i, 
Shu-ch'i, Yuchung, I-yi, Chu-chang, Hui of Liu-hsia, and Shao-lien.

The Master said, "Refusing to surrender their wills, or to submit to any
taint in their persons; such, I think, were Po-i and Shu-ch'i.

"It may be said of Hui of Liu-hsia! and of Shaolien, that they surrendered
their wills, and submitted to taint in their persons, but their words
corresponded with reason, and their actions were such as men are anxious to
see. This is all that is to be remarked in them.

"It may be said of Yu-chung and I-yi, that, while they hid themselves in
their seclusion, they gave a license to their words; but in their persons, 
they succeeded in preserving their purity, and, in their retirement, they 
acted according to the exigency of the times.

"I am different from all these. I have no course for which I am 
predetermined, and no course against which I am predetermined."

The grand music master, Chih, went to Ch'i.
Kan, the master of the band at the second meal, went to Ch'u. Liao, the
band master at the third meal, went to Ts'ai. Chueh, the band master at the
fourth meal, went to Ch'in.

Fang-shu, the drum master, withdrew to the north of the river.
Wu, the master of the hand drum, withdrew to the Han.
Yang, the assistant music master, and Hsiang, master of the musical stone,
withdrew to an island in the sea.

The duke of Chau addressed his son, the duke of Lu, saying, "The virtuous
prince does not neglect his relations. He does not cause the great 
ministers to repine at his not employing them. Without some great cause, he
does not dismiss from their offices the members of old families. He does
not seek in one man talents for every employment."

To Chau belonged the eight officers, Po-ta, Po-kwo, Chung-tu, Chung-hwu, 
Shu-ya, Shuhsia, Chi-sui, and Chi-kwa.

Part 19

Tsze-chang said, "The scholar, trained for public duty, seeing threatening
danger, is prepared to sacrifice his life. When the opportunity of gain is
presented to him, he thinks of righteousness. In sacrificing, his thoughts
are reverential. In mourning, his thoughts are about the grief which he
should feel. Such a man commands our approbation indeed

Tsze-chang said, "When a man holds fast to virtue, but without seeking to
enlarge it, and believes in right principles, but without firm sincerity,
what account can be made of his existence or non-existence?"

The disciples of Tsze-hsia asked Tsze-chang about the principles that
should characterize mutual intercourse. Tsze-chang asked, "What does 
Tsze-hsia say on the subject?" They replied, "Tsze-hsia says: 'Associate 
with those who can advantage you. Put away from you those who cannot do 
so.'" Tsze-chang observed, "This is different from what I have learned. The
superior man honors the talented and virtuous, and bears with all. He
praises the good, and pities the incompetent. Am I possessed of great 
talents and virtue?-who is there among men whom I will not bear with? Am I
devoid of talents and virtue?-men will put me away from them. What have we
to do with the putting away of others?"

Tsze-hsia said, "Even in inferior studies and employments there is
something worth being looked at; but if it be attempted to carry them out
to what is remote, there is a danger of their proving inapplicable. 
Therefore, the superior man does not practice them."

Tsze-hsia said, "He, who from day to day recognizes what he has not yet,
and from month to month does not forget what he has attained to, may be
said indeed to love to learn."

Tsze-hsia said, "There are learning extensively, and having a firm and
sincere aim; inquiring with earnestness, and reflecting with
self-application:-virtue is in such a course."

Tsze-hsia said, "Mechanics have their shops to dwell in, in order to
accomplish their works. The superior man learns, in order to reach to the
utmost of his principles."

Tsze-hsia said, "The mean man is sure to gloss his faults."
Tsze-hsia said, "The superior man undergoes three changes. Looked at from a
distance, he appears stern; when approached, he is mild; when he is heard
to speak, his language is firm and decided."

Tsze-hsia said, "The superior man, having obtained their confidence, may
then impose labors on his people. If he have not gained their confidence, 
they will think that he is oppressing them. Having obtained the confidence 
of his prince, one may then remonstrate with him. If he have not gained his
confidence, the prince will think that he is vilifying him."

Tsze-hsia said, "When a person does not transgress the boundary line in the
great virtues, he may pass and repass it in the small virtues."

Tsze-yu said, "The disciples and followers of Tsze-hsia, in sprinkling and
sweeping the ground, in answering and replying, in advancing and receding, 
are sufficiently accomplished. But these are only the branches of learning,
and they are left ignorant of what is essential.-How can they be
acknowledged as sufficiently taught?"

Tsze-hsia heard of the remark and said, "Alas! Yen Yu is wrong. According
to the way of the superior man in teaching, what departments are there
which he considers of prime importance, and delivers? what are there which
he considers of secondary importance, and allows himself to be idle about?
But as in the case of plants, which are assorted according to their
classes, so he deals with his disciples. How can the way of a superior man
be such as to make fools of any of them? Is it not the sage alone, who can
unite in one the beginning and the consummation of learning?"

Tsze-hsia said, "The officer, having discharged all his duties, should
devote his leisure to learning. The student, having completed his learning,
should apply himself to be an officer."

Tsze-hsia said, "Mourning, having been carried to the utmost degree of
grief, should stop with that."

Tsze-hsia said, "My friend Chang can do things which are hard to be done,
but yet he is not perfectly virtuous."

The philosopher Tsang said, "How imposing is the manner of Chang! It is
difficult along with him to practice virtue."

The philosopher Tsang said, "I heard this from our Master: 'Men may not
have shown what is in them to the full extent, and yet they will be found
to do so, on the occasion of mourning for their parents."

The philosopher Tsang said, "I have heard this from our Master:-'The filial
piety of Mang Chwang, in other matters, was what other men are competent 
to, but, as seen in his not changing the ministers of his father, nor his 
father's mode of government, it is difficult to be attained to.'"

The chief of the Mang family having appointed Yang Fu to be chief criminal
judge, the latter consulted the philosopher Tsang. Tsang said, "The rulers
have failed in their duties, and the people consequently have been
disorganized for a long time. When you have found out the truth of any
accusation, be grieved for and pity them, and do not feel joy at your own

Tsze-kung said, "Chau's wickedness was not so great as that name implies.
Therefore, the superior man hates to dwell in a low-lying situation, where
all the evil of the world will flow in upon him."

Tsze-kung said, "The faults of the superior man are like the eclipses of
the sun and moon. He has his faults, and all men see them; he changes 
again, and all men look up to him."

Kung-sun Ch'ao of Wei asked Tszekung, saying. "From whom did Chung-ni get
his learning?"

Tsze-kung replied, "The doctrines of Wan and Wu have not yet fallen to the
ground. They are to be found among men. Men of talents and virtue remember
the greater principles of them, and others, not possessing such talents and
virtue, remember the smaller. Thus, all possess the doctrines of Wan and
Wu. Where could our Master go that he should not have an opportunity of
learning them? And yet what necessity was there for his having a regular 

Shu-sun Wu-shu observed to the great officers in the court, saying, 
"Tsze-kung is superior to Chung-ni."

Tsze-fu Ching-po reported the observation to Tsze-kung, who said, "Let me
use the comparison of a house and its encompassing wall. My wall only
reaches to the shoulders. One may peep over it, and see whatever is 
valuable in the apartments.

"The wall of my Master is several fathoms high. If one do not find the door
and enter by it, he cannot see the ancestral temple with its beauties, nor
all the officers in their rich array.

"But I may assume that they are few who find the door. Was not the
observation of the chief only what might have been expected?"

Shu-sun Wu-shu having spoken revilingly of Chung-ni, Tsze-kung said, "It is
of no use doing so. Chung-ni cannot be reviled. The talents and virtue of
other men are hillocks and mounds which may be stepped over. Chung-ni is
the sun or moon, which it is not possible to step over. Although a man may
wish to cut himself off from the sage, what harm can he do to the sun or
moon? He only shows that he does not know his own capacity.

Ch'an Tsze-ch' in, addressing Tsze-kung, said, "You are too modest. How can
Chung-ni be said to be superior to you?"

Tsze-kung said to him, "For one word a man is often deemed to be wise, and
for one word he is often deemed to be foolish. We ought to be careful
indeed in what we say.

"Our Master cannot be attained to, just in the same way as the heavens
cannot be gone up by the steps of a stair.

"Were our Master in the position of the ruler of a state or the chief of a
family, we should find verified the description which has been given of a
sage's rule:-he would plant the people, and forthwith they would be
established; he would lead them on, and forthwith they would follow him; he
would make them happy, and forthwith multitudes would resort to his
dominions; he would stimulate them, and forthwith they would be harmonious.
While he lived, he would be glorious. When he died, he would be bitterly 
lamented. How is it possible for him to be attained to?"

Part 20

Yao said, "Oh! you, Shun, the Heaven-determined order of succession now
rests in your person. Sincerely hold fast the due Mean. If there shall be
distress and want within the four seas, the Heavenly revenue will come to a
perpetual end."

Shun also used the same language in giving charge to Yu.
T'ang said, "I the child Li, presume to use a dark-colored victim, and
presume to announce to Thee, O most great and sovereign God, that the 
sinner I dare not pardon, and thy ministers, O God, I do not keep in
obscurity. The examination of them is by thy mind, O God. If, in my person,
I commit offenses, they are not to be attributed to you, the people of the
myriad regions. If you in the myriad regions commit offenses, these
offenses must rest on my person."

Chau conferred great gifts, and the good were enriched.
"Although he has his near relatives, they are not equal to my virtuous men.
The people are throwing blame upon me, the One man."

He carefully attended to the weights and measures, examined the body of the
laws, restored the discarded officers, and the good government of the
kingdom took its course.

He revived states that had been extinguished, restored families whose line
of succession had been broken, and called to office those who had retired
into obscurity, so that throughout the kingdom the hearts of the people
turned towards him.

What he attached chief importance to were the food of the people, the
duties of mourning, and sacrifices.

By his generosity, he won all. By his sincerity, he made the people repose
trust in him. By his earnest activity, his achievements were great. By his
justice, all were delighted.

Tsze-chang asked Confucius, saying, "In what way should a person in
authority act in order that he may conduct government properly?" The Master
replied, "Let him honor the five excellent, and banish away the four bad,
things;-then may he conduct government properly." Tsze-chang said, "What
are meant by the five excellent things?" The Master said, "When the person
in authority is beneficent without great expenditure; when he lays tasks on
the people without their repining; when he pursues what he desires without
being covetous; when he maintains a dignified ease without being proud;
when he is majestic without being fierce."

Tsze-chang said, "What is meant by being beneficent without great 
expenditure?" The Master replied, "When the person in authority makes more 
beneficial to the people the things from which they naturally derive
benefit;-is not this being beneficent without great expenditure? When he
chooses the labors which are proper, and makes them labor on them, who will
repine? When his desires are set on benevolent government, and he secures
it, who will accuse him of covetousness? Whether he has to do with many
people or few, or with things great or small, he does not dare to indicate
any disrespect;-is not this to maintain a dignified ease without any pride?
He adjusts his clothes and cap, and throws a dignity into his looks, so 
that, thus dignified, he is looked at with awe;-is not this to be majestic 
without being fierce?"

Tsze-chang then asked, "What are meant by the four bad things?" The Master
said, "To put the people to death without having instructed them;-this is
called cruelty. To require from them, suddenly, the full tale of work,
without having given them warning;-this is called oppression. To issue
orders as if without urgency, at first, and, when the time comes, to insist
on them with severity;-this is called injury. And, generally, in the giving
pay or rewards to men, to do it in a stingy way;-this is called acting the
part of a mere official."

The Master said, "Without recognizing the ordinances of Heaven, it is
impossible to be a superior man.

"Without an acquaintance with the rules of Propriety, it is impossible for
the character to be established.

"Without knowing the force of words, it is impossible to know men."

                                 THE END